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  • Author or Editor: J. Kloprogge x
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Abstract  

The thermal behaviour of fully and partially expanded kaolinites intercalated with formamide has been investigated in nitrogen atmosphere under quasi-isothermal heating conditions at a constant, pre-set decomposition rate of 0.20 mg min–1 . With this technique it is possible to distinguish between loosely bonded (surface bonded) and strongly bonded (intercalated) formamide. Loosely bonded formamide is liberated in an equilibrium reaction under quasi-isothermal conditions at 118°C, while the strongly bonded (intercalated) portion is lost in an equilibrium, but non-isothermal process between 130 and 200°C. The presence of water in the intercalation solution can influence the amount of adsorbed formamide, but has no effect on the amount of the intercalated reagent. When the kaolinite is fully expanded, the amount of formamide hydrogen bonded to the inner surface of the mineral is 0.25 mol formamide/mol inner surface OH group. While the amount of surface bonded formamide is decreasing with time, no change can be observed in the amount of the intercalated reagent. With this technique the mass loss stages belonging to adsorbed and intercalated formamide can be resolved thereby providing a complex containing only one type of bonded (intercalated) formamide.

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Abstract  

Thermogravimetry combined with mass spectrometry has been used to study the thermal decomposition of a synthetic hydronium jarosite. Five mass loss steps are observed at 262, 294, 385, 557 and 619C. The mass loss step at 557C is sharp and marks a sharp loss of sulphate as SO3 from the hydronium jarosite. Mass spectrometry through evolved gases confirms the first three mass loss steps to dehydroxylation, the fourth to a mass loss of the hydrated proton and a sulphate and the final step to the loss of the remaining sulphate. Changes in the molecular structure of the hydronium jarosite were followed by infrared emission spectroscopy. This technique allows the infrared spectrum at the elevated temperatures to be obtained. Infrared emission spectroscopy confirms the dehydroxylation has taken place by 400 and the sulphate loss by 650C. Jarosites are a group of minerals formed in evaporite deposits and form a component of the efflorescence. The minerals can function as cation and heavy metal collectors. Hydronium jarosite has the potential to act as a cation collector by the replacement of the proton with a heavy metal cation.

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Abstract  

A combination of DSC and high resolution DTG coupled to a gas evolution mass spectrometer has been used to study the thermal properties of a series of Mg/Zn hydrotalcites of formulae MgxZn6-xAl2(OH)16(CO3) 4H2O where x varied from 6 to 0. The effect of increased Zn composition results in the decrease of the endotherms and mass loss steps to lower temperatures. Evolved gas mass spectrometry shows that water is lost in a number of steps. The interlayer carbonate anion is lost simultaneously with hydroxyl units.

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Abstract  

The thermal stability and thermal decomposition pathways for synthetic iowaite have been determined using thermogravimetry in conjunction with evolved gas mass spectrometry. Chemical analysis showed the formula of the synthesised iowaite to be Mg6.27Fe1.73(Cl)1.07(OH)16(CO3)0.336.1H2O and X-ray diffraction confirms the layered structure. Dehydration of the iowaite occurred at 35 and 79C. Dehydroxylation occurred at 254 and 291C. Both steps were associated with the loss of CO2. Hydrogen chloride gas was evolved in two steps at 368 and 434C. The products of the thermal decomposition were MgO and a spinel MgFe2O4. Experimentally it was found to be difficult to eliminate CO2 from inclusion in the interlayer during the synthesis of the iowaite compound and in this way the synthesised iowaite resembled the natural mineral.

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Abstract  

The thermal behaviour of kaolinites intercalated with formamide, dimethyl sulphoxide and hydrazine has been studied by simultaneous TG-DTG-DTA-EGA and TG-MS techniques. The complexes can be decomposed completely without dehydroxylating the mineral. It was found that the amount of intercalated guest molecules per inner surface OH-group is close to unity for the formamide and dimethyl sulphoxide intercalates. For the intercalation of hydrazine it was found that hydrazine is locked in the expanded mineral as hydrazine hydrate and its amount is somewhat higher than that obtained for the other two reagents. The thermal evolution patterns of the guest molecules revealed that all the three reagents are bonded at least in two different ways in the interlayer space.

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Abstract  

The thermal behaviour of mechanochemically treated kaolinite has been investigated under dynamic and controlled rate thermal analysis (CRTA) conditions. Ten hours of grinding of kaolinite results in the loss of the d(001) spacing and the replacement of some 60% of the kaolinite hydroxyls with water. Kaolinite normally dehydroxylates in a single mass loss stage between 400 and 600°C. CRTA technology enables the dehydroxylation of the ground mineral to be observed in four overlapping stages at 385, 404, 420 and 433°C under quasi-isobaric condition in a self-generated atmosphere. It is proposed that mechanochemical treatment of the kaolinite causes the localization of the protons when the long range ordering is lost.

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Abstract  

Thermogravimetry combined with mass spectrometry has been used to study the thermal decomposition of a synthetic ammonium jarosite. Five mass loss steps are observed at 120, 260, 389, 510 and 541°C. Mass spectrometry through evolved gases confirms these steps as loss of water, dehydroxylation, loss of ammonia and loss of sulphate in two steps. Changes in the molecular structure of the ammonium jarosite were followed by infrared emission spectroscopy (IES). This technique allows the infrared spectrum at the elevated temperatures to be obtained. IES confirms the dehydroxylation to have taken place by 300°C and the ammonia loss by 450°C. Loss of the sulphate is observed by changes in band position and intensity after 500°C.

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Abstract  

The thermal decompositions of hydrotalcites with hexacyanoferrate(II) and hexacyanoferrate(III) in the interlayer have been studied using thermogravimetry combined with mass spectrometry. X-ray diffraction shows the hydrotalcites have a d(003) spacing of 11.1 and 10.9 which compares with a d-spacing of 7.9 and 7.98 for the hydrotalcite with carbonate or sulphate in the interlayer. XRD was also used to determine the products of the thermal decomposition. For the hydrotalcite decomposition the products were MgO, Fe2O3 and a spinel MgAl2O4. Dehydration and dehydroxylation take place in three steps each and the loss of cyanide ions in two steps.

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