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  • Author or Editor: J. Kufčáková x
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Abstract  

Sorption of Sr on five Slovak bentonites of deposits has been studied with the use of batch technique. In the experiments there have been used natural, chemically modified and irradiated samples, in three different kinds of grain size. The pH influence on sorption of strontium on bentonites, pH change after sorption and influence of competitive ions have been studied. Distribution ratios have been determined for bentonite–strontium solution system as a function of contact time, pH and sorbate concentration. The data have been interpreted in term of Langmuir isotherm. The uptake of Sr has been rapid and the sorption of strontium has increased by increasing pH. The percentage sorption has decreased with increasing metal concentrations. The pH value after sorption for the natrificated forms of bentonite starts already in the alkaline area and moves to the higher values. For the natural bentonites the values occur in the neutral or in the acidic area. Sorption of Sr has been suppressed by presence of competitive cations as follows: Ba2+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > NH4 + > K> Na+. By sorption on natrificated samples colloidal particles and pH value increase have been formed. The bentonite exposure as a result of interaction of γ-rays has led to expansion of the specific surface, increasing of the sorption capacity and to the change in the solubility of the clay materials.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Galamboš, M. Daňo, O. Rosskopfová, F. Šeršeň, J. Kufčáková, R. Adamcová, and P. Rajec

Abstract  

One of the basic prerequisites for the use of bentonite as engineering barrier in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel is their stability against ionizing radiation stemming from radionuclides present in radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in the adsorption properties of selected Slovak bentonites in relation to uranium fission products (137Cs and 90Sr), prior to and after irradiation of bentonites with a 60Co γ-source and specifying the changes in the structure of Slovak bentonites induced by γ-radiation. The changes in irradiated natural forms of Slovak bentonites and the changes in their natrified analogues and fractions with different grain sizes were studied from five Slovak deposits: Jelšový potok, Kopernica, Lastovce, Lieskovec and Dolná Ves. The EPR spectra of bentonites from deposits Jelšový potok and Lieskovec with absorbed doses of 104 and 105 Gy γ-rays showed no changes in the structure of the studied Slovak bentonites. The changes, which in terms of structure destabilization can be considered insignificant, occurred only in bentonites with absorbed doses of γ-radiation as much as 1 MGy. The absorbed dose of 1 MGy γ-radiation did not have an effect on the adsorption of cesium on every studied bentonite. Changes that can also be regarded as insignificant occurred only during strontium adsorption, especially on Fe–bentonite from deposit Lieskovec and Ca–Mg–bentonite from deposit Jelšový potok, when an increase in the adsorption capacity occurred. Attention should be paid in further research of this topic which would require carrying out experiments on bentonite samples with absorbed doses higher by several orders of magnitude.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Galamboš, V. Paučová, J. Kufčáková, O. Rosskopfová, P. Rajec, and R. Adamcová

Abstract  

The physical and chemical properties of illitic clay minerals from Slovak deposit suitable for application in engineering barriers for high level radioactive waste repositories and spent nuclear fuels were studied. The isolation of spent nuclear fuels and high level radioactive wastes from the outer environment in a deep repository is gained by means of a system of multiple engineering and natural sealing barriers. Vital segments in a multiple barrier system are clay rocks, of which bentonites represent the most suitable clay material. Cs-adsorption on fine fractions of adsorbents (bentonites from three Slovak deposits: Jelšový potok J15, Kopernica K15, Lieskovec L15 and montmorillonite K10) has been studied with using batch of radiometric techniques. Adsorption parameters have been determined for adsorbent-cesium solution system as a function of contact time and adsorbate concentration. The influences of pH change, the effect of competitive cations, complex-forming organic chelating agents on the adsorption of Cs have also been studied.

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