The paper describes a radiometric variant of the two-phase titration method for the determination of anionic surfactants of nonsoapy type. The method is based on the titration of an anionic surfactant with Septonex in alkaline medium in the presence of131I-Rose Bengal /abbreviated131I-RB/. The ion associates are extracted into chloroform. The equivalence point is determined graphically from the activity of131I-RB-Septonex associate, which is formed after the consumption of the anionic surfactant and which passes into the organic phase. The influence of131I-RB amount, pH of the titrated medium and of soap presence on the precision of anionic surfactants determination was studied. The detection limit is 2.88 g sodium n-dodecylsulphate in 10 ml of sample.
Separation procedures based on chelate extraction are described, which can be used in the course of production of carrier-free
nuclides. The selectivities of the separations dealt with are fairly high, while the overall yield depends on the experimental
conditions, primarily on whether the micro- or the macrocomponent of the system can be chelated. The problems encountered
in the production of carrier-free64Cu,67Cu,84Rb and111Ag are briefly discussed.
The paper describes an extraction radiometric method for the determination of Rose Bengal content in the radiopharmaceutical preparations of Rose Bengal labelled with131I. Two methods have been studied. The first one is based on the addition of an excess and substoichiometric amounts of Septonex /carbetoxypentadecyltrimethylammonium bromide/ to the sample of Rose Bengal-131I and on the activity measuring of the chloroform extracts. The second method is based on the extraction of Rose Bengal-131I with substoichiometric amount of Septonex from the sample of Rose Bengal-131I and the sample of Rose Bengal-131I diluted with a known amount of an inactive Rose Bengal preparation.
The Rose Bengal forms with cationic surfactants /1-carbethoxypentadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and cetylpyridinium bromide/ the extractable ion associates with composition 11 or 12. The extraction constants of the ion associates of the Rose Bengal with cationic surfactants were determined radiometrically with the aid of Rose Bengal labelled with131I.
Phytosociological databases are important data sources for a broad scale of ecological investigations. Vegetation samples are traditionally managed and published in tabular format, allowing for handling of the vegetation data in various combinations. Such tables usually comprise relevés originated from the same locality, vegetation type and collected by the same investigator. Nevertheless, these relevés are usually affected by the same bias. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of the effects acting at the level of the table (i.e., ‘locally’), using the example of species removals from groups of relevés. We examine the effect of the removal of infrequent species on community classification in relation with several data set properties using simulated plot data sampled from simulated coenoclines. A data set comprised groups of relevés (‘tables’), within which relevés are sampled from the same point of the coenocline. Classifications obtained after the removal or permutation of infrequent species occurrences from these tables, after the removal of rare species from randomised tables and without any treatment were compared to a reference classification based on gradient positions of the relevés. The results show that the removal of locally infrequent species helps to recognise the gradient pattern incorporated in the tabular arrangement of relevés if the arrangement of relevés among tables is in accordance with their gradient position. In cases when the grouping of relevés is irrelevant regarding the real underlying pattern, the species removal is disadvantageous. Testing between-table heterogeneity within a data set is an especially successful way of examination of biological relevance of the arrangement of relevés. We conclude that influence of table-level effects is mainly dependent on the pattern which is in accordance with the grouping of plots.
Authors:Zs. Szántó, L. Papp, J. Kónya, N. Nagy, and Zs. Lengyel
Studies were initiated to investigate the effect of the delivery mode of45Ca ions through guinea pig skin in vivo. Direct current (DC), pulsating current (PC) and a Bernard current form, the “courtes
periodes” current profile (CP) were applied with the same current density (0.16 mA/cm2) and for the same duration (30 minutes). The45Ca ions were delivered from a Ca-bentonite patch radiolabeled with45Ca (a natural mineral clay rich in calcium, 50 mgCa/g). The total quantity of applied bentonite was 1.5g×10 days=15g.45Ca was counted in different biological samples of the animals. The delivery of45Ca ions into the body (systemic effect) is the highest when CP current is applied (6.87±0.95·10−12g/samples). The local effect appears to be more effective in case of DC current mode (5.89±0.12·10−12g/0.5g bone). Total calcium measurements proved that the result of transdermal radiocalcium delivery is not only an ion exchange
process at the surface of the bone but a deposition of calcium ions into the hydroxiapatite matrix (the net calcium introduction,
which represent the difference between the total calcium into the treated bone and total calcium into untreated bone varied
from 15.52±2.42·10−3g/0.5g bone to 44.30±3.50·10−3g/0.5g bone). The results suggest that iontophoresis could be used to accumulate calcium into different target tissues using
the appropriate current system.
Authors:Bernadett Borda, Cs Lengyel, E. Szederkényi, J. Eller, Cs Keresztes, and G. Lázár
The incidence of post-transplant diabetes mellitus and its effects on the kidney allograft function and morphology were assessed. Patients were divided into three groups according to their glucose metabolism. Risk factors for diabetes were first assessed, and then changes in renal function were checked. Morphological changes in the allografts were examined by protocol biopsies. The overall incidence of diabetes was 16%. The development of diabetes was influenced significantly by the body mass index, the body weight and the age of the recipient. The incidence of diabetes was 8.6% in patients on cyclosporine A therapy and 28.8% in those on tacrolimus (p < 0.05). As to the morphology of the kidney, a significantly higher proportion of the biopsies showed severe interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (p = 0.0004) and subclinical acute rejection ( p = 0.001) in the diabetic group compared to the normal one. This clinical study has revealed that the adverse effect of diabetes on the allograft can be detected with protocol biopsy before the manifestation of a functional deterioration.
Authors:T. Ábel, A. Blázovics, A. Wimmer, G. Bekő, B. Gaál, B. Blazics, M. Eldin, J. Fehér, I. Szabolcs, and G. Lengyel
The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity is actually a topic of intense research nowadays. In this study we investigated the effect of moderate consumption of white wine in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-two patients with metabolic syndrome participated in this prospective, randomised, double-blind study. The subjects received either Müller-Thurgau (n=14) or Pintes (n=18) sort of wine for 4 weeks. Male and female subjects consumed 300 ml wine (30 g alcohol) and 200 ml wine (20 g alcohol) per day, respectively. Clinical and laboratory parameters were determined before and after the period of wine consumption. The HOMA-IR showed a significant decrease upon the consumption of both sorts of wine as compared to the baseline (Müller-Thurgau group: 1.85±2.1 vs. 1.06±0.6; P=0.03; Pintes group: 2.28±2.04 vs. 1.08±0.6; P=0.002). Four weeks of wine consumption lead to significant decreased of ALT (alanine aminotransferase; Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.003; Pintes group: P=0.002) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase; Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.003; Pintes group: P=0.02). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) levels increased significantly in both groups (Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.004; Pintes group: P=0.001). The plasma reducing capacity increased significantly upon the consumption of both sorts of wine (Müller-Thurgau group: P=0.002; Pintes group: P=0.001). In patients consuming Müller-Thurgau there was a significant decrease of total cholesterol (5.4±1.4 vs. 4.9±1.2 mmol l−1; P=0.006) and LDL-cholesterol (3.9±1.1 vs. 3.6±1.2 mmol l−1; P=0.04) levels. In the Pintes group we found no significant difference either in total cholesterol (5.1±0.6 vs. 5.0±0.7 mmol l−1; P=0.25) or LDL-cholesterol (3.6±0.6 vs. 3.6±0.6 mmol l−1; P=0.5) concentrations. The results of our study confirm that moderate consumption of white wine increases insulin sensitivity and EGF levels in persons with metabolic syndrome.
Authors:Péter Csathó, E. Osztoics, J. Csillag, T. Lengyel, L. Gonda, L. Radimszky, G. Baczó, M. Magyar, K. R. Végh, M. Karátsonyi, T. Takács, A. Lukács, and T. Németh
Depending on their origin, sedimentary phosphate
rocks (PRs) may differ in their P solubility, and, as a consequence, in their
agronomic effectiveness. The effect of six phosphate rocks (PR) - originating
from Algeria (ALG), North Florida (FLO), North Carolina (NCA), Senegal (SEN)
Morocco (MOR) and Hyperphosphate (HYP) with various P solubility (evaluated by
2% formic acid, 2% citric acid, and neutral ammonium citrate) - as well as
single superphosphate (SSP) and superphosphate + lime (SSP + Ca) (each P source
on 4 P levels, with doses of 0, 100, 400 and 1600 mg P
soil) on the shoot yield of tillering stage spring barley, soil available
P (i.e. H
O, Olsen, Bray1, Lakanen-Erviö (LE) and ammonium lactate
(AL) extractable P contents) were studied in pot experiments set up with acidic
sandy soil (Nyírlugos, Hungary) and acidic clay loam soil (Ragály, Hungary),
both with low P supplies. The average
spring barley shoot yield at the beginning of shooting was 95% higher on the
colloid-rich acidic (pH
: 4.5) clay loam soil than on the
colloid-poor acidic (pH
: 3.8) sandy soil. The differences in the
solubility of phosphate rocks showed close correlation to the differences in P
responses. On both soils, the correlation between total PR-P added and P
responses in spring barley shoot yield was much weaker than that between
neutral ammonium citrate soluble PR-P added and P responses in spring barley
shoot yield. When phosphate rocks were applied as P sources, the comparison of
soil test P methods showed a different picture on the two soils. In the case of
the acidic sandy soil (Nyírlugos), the strongly acid LE-P (r² = 0.83) and
AL-P (r² =0.74) tests gave the highest correlation coefficients with
spring barley responses to P, while on the acidic clay loam soil (Ragály) these
were achieved by the Olsen-P (r² = 0.88) and Bray1-P (r² =0.88)