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In this paper old historical maps and the sheets of the Habsburg Military Surveys are analyzed to distinguish different terrace levels in the Great Hungarian Plain (GHP), and particulary in the Körös/Criş river system. The GHP is located in the Pannonian Basin, in the eastern part of Hungary, which is a very flat area. Prior to the river regulations, its meandering rivers (eg. the Tisza and Körös Rivers) flooded the lower areas and created marshlands. The method of the integrated analysis of these different maps was the georeference; to geometric fit the sheets from different sources. While the First Military Survey shows the original extents of these areas the Second Survey displays the situation of the environment at the time of the flood control works in the second half of the 19th century, also with the planned cutoffs. The maps show not only the rivers, but the settlements as well. During this period, these villages and towns became bigger, so they needed more and more agricultural area. They cleared the forests and dried out the marshlands to have more ploughlands. These land types can also be separated easily in the survey sheets. Two study areas were selected to show the effectiveness of environmental reconstruction at some local engineering surveys and the Military Surveys, too. The extents of the different elevation terraces are mapped with striking accuracy.

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E. Vives: Coleoptera-Cerambycidae, Fauna Ibérica, Vol. 12., Museo National de Ciencias Naturales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones, Madrid 2000, p. 715 L. Bos: Plant Viruses, Unique and Intriguing Pathogens- A Textbook of Plant Virolgy, Bachuys Publishers, Leiden 1999, p. 358

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: P. Rafai, A. Székely, and J. Mészáros

Karl-Heinz Waldmann and Michael Wendt (editors), Klaus Bickhardt, Karl Heinritzi, Karl Heinz Lahrmann, Hans Plonait , Karl-Heinz Waldman, Michael Wendt and Werner Zimmermann (co-authors):Lehrbuch der Schweinekrankheiten (Textbook of Swine Diseases). Parey Buchverlag, Berlin, 2001. 3rd revised edition. 626 pages with 318 figures and 63 tables. Format 17 × 24 cm. ISBN 3-8263-3373-X. Price: € 89.95.  Roy Mack, Bettina Mikhail and Michel Mikhail: Dictionary of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences / Wörterbuch der Veterinärmedizin und Biowissenschaften / Dictionnaire de médecine vétérinaire et des sciences biologiques (English-German-French). 3rd, revised and expanded edition, 2002. Parey Buchverlag, Berlin. 1692 pages. 17 × 24 cm. ISBN 3-8263-3405-1. Price: € 94.95.  Környezet- és Természetvédelmi Lexikon (Encyclopaedia of Environmental Protection and Nature Conservation) (in Hungarian language). 2nd, revised and expanded edition. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2002. Hardcover, two volumes (664 and 588 pages).

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Shell eggs have been irradiated with increasing radiation doses in the 0.5-3.0 kGy dose range and various non-microbiological changes, important from the point of view of consumer quality, have been estimated. Dose-dependent changes in the flow behaviour of egg white and brittleness of the yolk membrane in broken eggs, sensorial parameters of the raw and soft-boiled eggs, whippability and foam stability of the egg white were observed. Considering that a minimal dose of 1.5 kGy would be required for radiation inactivation of salmonellae and other, non-pathogenic bacteria, the quality of irradiated eggs upon such gamma radiation dose would not be equal in all parameters to those of the fresh shell eggs, however, changes in sensorial and functional properties at this dose level may be still acceptable, mainly for risk population and some industrial use.

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Body size, physique, body composition and physiological performance of elite athletes's independent aspects, have aroused the interest of exercise scientists, but studies that combine these aspects in elite athletes are scarcely available. The aim of the present study was to describe the selected anthropometric and exercise physiological characteristics of some Hungarian top athletes. The investigated subjects were qualified Hungarian water polo players (n=25), paddlers (n=24) and modern pentathlonists (n=20), all of whom had been medalists at several continental and intercontinental competitions. The athletes' body composition was estimated by the Drinkwater–Ross (45) body mass fractionation technique. Peak physiological performance was estimated by graded exhausting spiroergometric treadmill exercise. Intergroup differences in mean height, body mass and body composition characteristics were significant at the 5% level of random error. By the results of spiroergometry, all the three groups compared could be qualified as physically excellently trained. The greatest oxygen uptake relative to body mass was found in the modern pentathlonists (73.22 ml´kg–1´min–1) and the lowest one (59.79) in the water polo players. The authors do not disregard the favourable effects of regular and adequate trainings in the development of the studied characteristics, but in their opinion the process of proper selection has been the most important factor that explains the observed significant intergroup differences.__

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: A. Prókai, J. Mészáros, Zs. Mészáros, A. Photiou, I. Vajda, and Á. Sziva

Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is a serious social and health problem both in the economically developed and developing countries. Despite this fact the nation-wide growth studies completed in Hungary during the past 30 years had not categorised the children either by body fat content or nutritional status. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obese boys in the country at the beginning of the new millennium.Height, body mass and four skinfold thicknesses were measured in 7173 volunteer boys aged between 7 and 10 and living in various urban and rural settlements of Hungary between 2003 and 2005. Nutritional status was qualified by the BMI and relative body fat content. The significantly increasing prevalence with age of overweight and obesity ranged between 10.3 and 23.4%. The results showed the joint effects of a secular trend of growth and of a remarkably changed lifestyle. Of these the consequences of the lifestyle are the more important ones. The high and possibly further increasing prevalence of child-age overweight and obesity reminds one of the observations of Kopp and associates (5), namely that of the increased prevalence of chronic childhood diseases during the past 15 years. More intense habitual physical activity and dramatic changes in dietary habits still promise some solution. No one should reckon, however, with the efficiency of physical education at the schools with its very few classes.

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The prevalence of overweight or fat children and adolescents has markedly increased in Hungary during the past three decades. Among the possible factors insufficient physical activity and a relative or absolute excess of calorie intake associated to it can be regarded as the most important ones. The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of a 20-week aerobic exercise on body composition and on the exercise tested cardio-respiratory functions in 10-year-old obese boys. Obesity was defined by a BMI greater than the cut-off value reported by Cole and co-workers (5) and a relative body fat content above 30% (13). Of the study group 21 volunteer children completed the program; the contrast group contained 28 obese boys. Mean calendar age was 10.03±0.26 in the study group (S) and 9.88±0.29 in the control group (C). The members of group S had two curricular physical education (PE) classes a week and three extracurricular aerobic physical activity sessions of 60 min net time in the afternoon, on Mondays (swimming and water games), Wednesdays (folk dance) and Fridays (soccer). Group C had only 2 PE classes a week. Anthropometric and spiroergometric data were collected in the middle of January and June of 2004. Relative body fat content and BMI did not increase during the observation period in contrast to the significant increase of both in the control group. Peak minute ventilation, aerobic power, oxygen pulse, and running distance (performed on a treadmill) increased in group S, and did not change in group C.The program was considered successful despite that the changes in the observed physiological and physical indicators appeared to be slight. However, the 5-month elevated level of physical activity brought about such development in the physical status of the obese subjects that might be an appropriate basis for regular training. Fortunately, the cardio-respiratory functions of the investigated boys were not affected yet by obesity, consequently the really dramatic change in their further lifestyle exclusively depends on their decision.

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The effect of explant type (immature vs. mature embryos) and two auxin types (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid vs. Dicamba) on the callogenesis and plant regeneration ability of 26 wheat cultivars was studied. In general, the callus induction, plant regeneration and shoot formation frequencies were higher in mature embryo-derived cultures as compared to immature ones on media originally developed for mature wheat embryo cultures. In both culture types, the auxin Dicamba was found to be more efficient, especially when mature embryos were cultured. The separation of means using Duncan’s multiple range test revealed the best in vitro response, in terms of the frequency of callus regeneration, in the cultivar Astella for both immature and mature embryo cultures. This cultivar gave very promising results, suggesting that it could be used in the future for further tissue culture investigations and as a donor material for genetic transformation experiments in wheat. Correlation analyses revealed significant similarities between the evaluated parameters within each group (immature and mature embryo-derived cultures). However, there were no significant correlations between these two groups for most of the parameters. This suggests that the mechanism of plant regeneration in the two in vitro regeneration systems (mature vs. immature embryo culture) may be different enough to hamper the development of an optimal plant regeneration protocol for use in both systems.

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Suspensions of a bioluminescent (luxAB) transformant of Listeria monocytogenes in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer were pressurised and the effect of the pressure treatment was monitored by plate counting. When the bacteria were suspended in NaCl- and nisin-free buffer the number of colony forming units (CFU) decreased by 3 and 6 log cycles after 300 MPA for 10 and 30 min, respectively. Supplementing the plating medium with 5% NaCl did not influence the colony forming capacity of non-pressurised cells, however, CFU of residual populations after respective treatments of 300 MPa for 10 and 30 min were reduced by a further 2 and 3.5 log cycles in case of salt containing plates. Nisin-addition to the plating medium caused less than one log unit decrease in the CFU of the non-pressurised population. However, the CFU of 10 min-pressurised sample was 4 log cycles less in the nisin-containing plates than in the nisin-free ones, whereas no colonies were formed in the nisin-containing plates even when 1 ml was inoculated from the originally 1010 CFU/ml population after 300 MPa for 30 min. The luciferase activities (bioluminescence intensities) decreased concomitant with the reduction of the viable cell counts, however, they were approx. 0.6-0.8 log units less in the presence of 5% NaCl in the pressurised suspension than those expected from the previously established linear correlation between the logarithmic light outputs and the logarithmic viable cell counts.

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A bioluminescent derivative of Bacillus subtilis containing a plasmid encoding a luxAB fusion under control of a vegetative promoter and gives bioluminescence upon addition of an exogenous long-chain aldehyde has been used as test organism. Its spore populations have been produced and their heat- and radiation survival curves established. Heat-sensitization effect of pre-irradiation of spores was proven not only by colony counting but also with differential scanning calorimetry. Under a linearly programmed temperature increase, the heat destruction of spores surviving 2.5 kGy gamma irradiation resulted in at a few centigrade lower temperature than that of untreated spores. Heat denaturation endotherms in the DSC-thermogram of irradiated spores were shifted to lower temperatures as well. Comparative turbidimetric, luminometric and phase-contrast microscopic studies of untreated, heat-treated and irradiated spore populations showed that the kinetics of germination and the light emission during germination of radiation-inactivated spores were the same as those of untreated spores, revealing that the pre-formed luciferase enzyme packaged into the spores during sporulation remained intact after an irradiation dose causing 90% decrease in number of colony forming spores. Therefore, in contrast to heat-treated spores, the initial bioluminescence reading upon germination of irradiated spores does not reflect the viable count of their population.

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