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  • Author or Editor: J. M. Rodriguez x
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Abstract  

The intercalation compounds Ti(C3H7NH2)(HPO4)2·H2O (18.4 Å) (-TiP/n-Pr) and Ti(C4H9NH2)(HPO4)2·H2O (20.5 Å) (-TiP/n-Bu) have been prepared using -titanium phosphate, Ti(HPO4)2·2H2O (11.6 Å), as precursor. The retention of UO 2 2+ , in aqueous solutions by -TiP is very low being only a superficial adsorption phenomenon. When the intercalated materials are used, the retention is quantitative until 95% of the cation exchange capacity in the -TiP/n-Pr case (c.e.c.=6.30 mequiv./g), and over 80% for the -TiP/n-Bu compound (c.e.c.=6.04 mequiv./g).

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Abstract  

The curing kinetics of lignin-novolac and methylolated lignin-novolac resins were studied using non-isothermal methods employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at different heating rates. The Belichmeier, Ozawa and Kissinger methods were applied, which give the kinetic parameters of the curing process studied. In addition, the model-fitting Coats-Redfern method was used to analyze the experimental data. The kinetic study evaluated the effect of the lignin (softwood ammonium lignosulfonate), methylolated or not, on the resin curing process. Results for lignin-novolac and modified lignin-novolac resins were compared with a commercial novolac resin as a reference. When lignosulfonate is modified by methylolation and is incorporated in the novolac resin, there is an important reduction in activation energy. The lignin-novolac showed slightly higher values of activation energy than methylolated-lignin resins, but lower values than commercial resins. This behavior has been attributed to the extra methyol groups introduced by lignosulfonate.

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Abstract  

Kinetics of thermosetting polymers curing is difficult to study by isothermal methods based on the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique. The difficulty is due to the low sensitivity of the equipment for total reaction heat measurements during high temperature process. The aim of this paper is to display the equivalence between a dynamic model, the Ozawa method, and an isothermal isoconversional fit, which allows predicting the isothermal behavior of the resol resins cure through dynamic runs by DSC. In this work, lignin–phenol–formaldehyde and commercial phenol–formaldehyde resol resins were employed. In addition, the isothermal kinetic parameters for both resins were performed by means of transformation of the data obtained from the dynamic Ozawa method.

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Abstract  

The rheological behaviour of the materials diglycidil ether of bisphenol A (n = 0), 1, 2 diamine-cyclohexane and the epoxy reactive diluent vinylcyclohexane dioxide have been studied both separately and mixed before the beginning of the curing reaction. Different kinds of tests such as: preshear and time sweep, flow curve and stress sweep experiments were carried out. From these experiments, interesting information about: viscosity-shear stress and viscosity-shear rate dependences, storage modulus and the linear viscoelastic region were found out. Relationships between concentration of diluent and the final viscosity of the mixed sample and also between percentage of diluent and storage modulus were studied.

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Abstract  

The determination of Am and Cm in typical waste streams from nuclear power plants using anion exchange chromatography has some drawbacks like the contamination by Pu and Po. This improved procedure solves these problems, and it has been applied with success to the analysis of Am and Cm in nuclear waste samples: ion exchange resins, ion exchange resins solidified with cement and evaporator concentrates.

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The effects of environment and the high molecular weight glutenins on some quality properties (sedimentation volume, % protein content, and starch pasting viscosity) of bread wheat mutant waxy lines were evaluated. Thirty-eight 100% amylose-free F 2 derived F 6 and F 7 lines were used. The results indicated that the environment did not influence sedimentation volume, mixograph parameters and starch viscosity parameters of waxy flour. Variation in the % protein content was determined mainly by the environment. The sedimentation volume and the mixograph peak development time were influenced by the variation at over expression of Bx7 and the mixograph peak development time was influenced by the Glu-D1 locus. One starch viscosity parameter, time to peak viscosity, was influenced by variation at the Glu-A1 locus. This parameter is significantly lower in the waxy lines than the parent line, which shows the influence of the waxy loci. No significant correlation was observed for sedimentation volume, mixograph parameters, protein content and viscosity parameters of waxy lines.

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Abstract  

The low temperature of decomposition of some calcium carbonates and the bending of the TG curves of hydrated cement between 500 and 800°C suggested the presence of some complex compound(s), which needed complementary investigation (XRD, TG). Stepwise transformation of portlandite (and/or lime) into calcium carbonate, with intermediate steps of calcium carbonate hydroxide hydrates (CCH-1 to CCH-5), was indicated by the previous study of two OPC. This was checked here on four cements ground for t g=15, 20, 25 and 30 min and hydrated either in water vapour, successively at RH=1.0, 0.95 and 0.5 for 2 weeks each (WR1, WR2 and WR3, respectively) or as mortars in liquid water (1m), followed by WR as above. The d[001] spacing of portlandite was confirmed to vary: here between the lowest and the highest standard values. The diffractograms of n=32 different samples were analyzed for presence of standard CCH peaks, generally slightly displaced. These were: CCH-1 [Ca3(CO3)2(OH)2]: N=11 peaks, of three different d[hkl] spacings, CCH-2 [Ca6(CO2.65)2(OH657)7(H2O)2]: N=10 for two d[hkl], CCH-3 [Ca3(CO3)2(OH)2·1.5H2O]: N=14 for five d[hkl], CCH-4, ikaite [CaCO3(H2O)6]: N=13 for six d[hkl], CCH-5[CaCO3(H2O)]: N=15 for five d[hkl]. Thus the most probable is the presence of the last three. The stepwise transformation of Ca(OH)2 into CaCO3 was confirmed: portlandite (varying d[001])→CCH-1→CCH-2→CCH-3→CCH-4→CCH-5→CaCO3 The content of CCH was the highest at t gr=15 min, decreasing down to t gr=25 min and increasing slightly at 30 min, as inferred from the number of the peaks observed. After cement powder hydration at RH=1.0 (WR1) peak number increased gradually from CCH-1 to CCH-5, whereas in the hydrated mortar (1m) the peak number decreased from CCH-1 to CCH-5, indicating the respective progress of the carbonation reaction.

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We proposed Parmelia maculoides Gyeln. as a synonym of Punctelia stictica (Delise ex Duby) Krog;Physcia hosseana Gyeln. as a synonym of Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl. and Teloschistes exilis (Michx.) Vain. f. inaequalis Gyeln. as a synonym of Teloschistes nodulifer (Nyl.) Hill- mann based on the study of the Argentinian type material of Kofarago-Gyelnik. We also confirmed the presence of Oropogon loxensis (syn. Bryopogon hosseusianus Gyeln.) in Central Argentina by comparing the type specimen with samples collected recently. Finally we excluded the presence of Parmotrema stuppeum (Taylor) Hale from Argentina.

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Abstract  

In this paper, it has been carried out a study to analyze the effect of the stirring velocity in the experimental determination of the mixture enthalpies of several binary mixtures by using a Titration Calorimetric TAM2277-201/2250 by Thermometric AB. The tested liquid mixtures have been ethanol+water and those containing 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and (ethanediol, 1,2-propanediol or 1,2-butanediol). The stirring aim is to keep the homogeneity in the mixture process, but the stirring velocity must not be increased in excess in order not to favour the evaporation during the measurement process. This study reveals that every mixture process shows an optimum stirring velocity.

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