The high degree of climate variability is one of the greatest risk factors for agricultural production, which needs to be taken into consideration at all times, even within the framework of modern agriculture.One of the most important ways of adapting to changing climatic conditions is to analyse varieties and genotypes with relatively good climatic adaptation in terms of yield potential and growing requirements.The effect of year on the yield of maize was examined using a twenty-four year yield sequence. The weather was extremely variable in the examined period, so the effect of fertilisation also differed greatly. There was a clear correlation between the quantity of precipitation in the winter period and in the growing season and the yield of unfertilised treatments. The quantitative relationship between the two variables was moderate, because not only the total quantity of precipitation, but also the distribution over time has a significant influence on the yield. Very low yields were not always associated with the lowest precipitation sums (1994, 1995). Larger yields, however, were only achieved with higher precipitation (1980, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2008). It can be clearly seen that similar precipitation quantities resulted in different yield levels, due to the distribution of precipitation over time. The available water in the soil profile in spring is decisively influenced by precipitation during the winter period. An analysis of the results revealed a close correlation between the years and the fertilisation rate. In dry years a lower rate of fertilisation was more favourable, while in years with average or above-average precipitation, higher rates led to better yields. Under droughty conditions, and especially in consecutive dry years, the application of not more than 60 kg N ha
fertiliser is recommended, as higher fertiliser rates (1995) increase the risk level of maize production, thus reducing the efficiency. In the case of favourable water supplies, experimental results suggest that the application of 120 kg N ha
is justified. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the fertiliser effect was significant when averaged over the twenty-four years, but when the years were evaluated separately, the effect was found to differ, depending on the water supplies.The yield of the maize hybrids was 10 t ha
in years with favourable water supplies, but only 2–4 t ha
in droughty years. Yield fluctuations can be reduced through appropriate soil cultivation, water and nutrient supplies.
Scree forest communities Mercuriali-Tilietum Zólyomi et Jakucs 1958 of Börzsöny Mts were not processed until the present. These lime-dominated forests develop on andesite base-rock, mainly on periglacial scree surfaces. Using the Braun-Blanquet-Soó method 15 sampling spots were studied and analysed based on floristical composition, cenological aspects and habitat characteristics. The stand's species stock consists of tree species like Acer platanoides, Carpinus betulus, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia platyphyllos, shrubs like Cornus mas, Corylus avellana, Euonymus verrucosus, Ribes uva-crispa and herbs like Cystopteris fragilis, Dryopteris filix-mas, Galeobdolon luteum, Galium schultesii, G. odoratum, Hedera helix, Melica uniflora, Mercurialis perennis, Mycelis muralis, Poa nemoralis, Waldsteinia geoides. Rare Tilio-Acerion species are Adoxa moschatellina, Gagea minima, Geranium lucidum. Cenological categories, life forms, geoelement distribution, and Borhidi's Social Behaviour Types were studied on the basis of the synthetic table. Relative ecological T, W, R values according to Zólyomi, and Borhidi's continentality were also evaluated. Results were compared to Parietario-Aceretum (Horánszky 1964) Soó 1971 community belonging to alliance Tilio platyphylli-Acerion pseudoplatani. This andesitic gorge forest community where highly dominant species are Acer pseudoplatanus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior is a closely related to the scree forests.
The high degree of climate variability is one of the highest risk factors of production, which has to be taken into consideration at all times even within the framework of modern agriculture.One of the most important opportunities of adapting to changing climatic conditions is the evaluation of plant types and genotypes according to fertility and genotypes.The effect of year on the yield of maize was examined through using a twenty-two year yield sequence. Weather was changeable in the examined period, therefore the effect of fertilisation was very different as well. The relationship between the quantity of precipitation in the winter period and growing season and the unfertilised treatments can be easily detected. The quantitative relationship between the two variables is average, because beside the total quantity of the precipitation the periodical distribution is also a significant factor that influences yield. Significantly small yield is not always accompanied by the lowest amount of precipitation (1994, 1995). Larger yields however, were always accompanied by higher precipitation (1998, 1999, 2001, 2004). It can be well detected that with similar precipitation quantities, different amounts of yields will form due to the periodical distribution of changing precipitation. The accessible spring water resource is decisively influenced by the winter period. Based on the evaluation of our research results we have found that the specific years showed a close correlation with fertilisation. In droughty years or in years with lower or average precipitation, the application of higher fertiliser dosages was more favourable, but only the application of 60 kg N/ha fertiliser dosage is required at most in consecutive dry years. A higher fertiliser dosage (1995) increases the risk of maize production, decreasing the risk associated, thus reducing the efficiency of maize production. In case of favourable water supply — based on experiment results — the application of 120 kg N/ha fertiliser dosage is justified. According to the results of variance analysis, the examined fertiliser effect is significant when jointly examining the twenty-two years. The effect of water supply was different, depending on the degree of water supply, when evaluating the specific years separately.The yield level of maize hybrids is 10 t/ha in years with favourable water cycles, while in droughty years the harvestable yield was 2–3 t/ha. Yield fluctuation can be reduced through appropriate soil cultivation, water and nutrient supply.
The yield, protein and starch content of Martonvásár maize hybrids belonging to different FAO groups were examined in experiments involving early, optimal and late sowing dates in two different years (drought — 2007, favourable water supplies — 2008) on a calcareous chernozem soil with loam texture at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, University of Debrecen.Sowing date had a significant effect on maize grain yield in the dry year. The grain yields of hybrids with longer growing periods were significantly higher than those with shorter growing periods in both years, but they reacted sensitively to the change in sowing date in the dry year. Due to the rainfall distribution in the growing season, sowing date did not modify the performance of the hybrids in the year with favourable water supplies. Sowing date had a significant effect on the grain protein content in the dry year, with significantly higher values after late sowing than after early or optimal sowing. Averaged over the sowing dates, the protein content of the FAO 200 hybrid was significantly higher in both years than that of hybrids in other FAO groups. In the dry year, the greatest difference in protein content could be observed between the early and late sowing dates for hybrids in all four FAO groups. A negative correlation was found between yield and protein content. Sowing date significantly increased the starch content of maize in the favourable year, with a significant difference between early and late sowing dates.In the dry year higher starch contents were recorded for all the hybrids and for all the sowing dates than in the favourable year. In the dry year, sowing date only caused a significant difference in the starch content in the case of FAO 200 sown at optimal and late sowing dates. In the favourable year, a significant difference was only obtained for the starch content of the FAO 400 hybrid sown at early and late sowing dates. Satisfactory quality can only be achieved if suitable genotypes are grown with appropriate technologies.
The yield of maize is primarily influenced by sunlight, temperature, available plant nutrients and water supply. Since plants take up water through their roots, the most decisive factor is not precipitation but the quantity of water available in the soil. In this study, a simple, easy-to-reproduce, capacitive model was elaborated to determine the available moisture content for maize. During the calculations, based on the balance method, the available moisture content in the top 110 cm soil layer was determined, taking daily weather data into account. The examinations were carried out on a medium heavy chernozem soil with lime deposits, in a multifactorial experiment at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Center of Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University, between 1990 and 2004. Annual yield fluctuation is primarily determined by the soil moisture content in the month of July and the water supplies in May, according to regression analysis. The maize yields in the past 15 years could be calculated with an accuracy of 570 kg/ha, an error limit of below 10% and an r value of 0.805, using a regression line and the data of monthly moisture supplies. However, the yields of fertilized plots can only be estimated with an accuracy of 1 t/ha on average. Fertilizer utilization is influenced by the moisture content of the soil, so it makes sense to include this in the analysis instead of the other environmental factors. Water is required for nutrient utilization. In years with poor or medium water supplies, moderate fertilizer rates are more effective, compared to higher rates in years with better water supplies. Efficient fertilization in maize production can only be achieved by harmonizing soil moisture content and the applied fertilizer rate.
The physiognomy and the species composition of the Salici cinereae-Sphagnetum recurvi (Zólyomi 1931) Soó 1954 are variable in Hungary. This association has been divided into two new subassociations by the authors, due to the slight differences in their moss layer. As a representation they compared 27 phytocoenological relevés, made by 4 different botanists in 10 different mires, by multivariate analysis. Those peat moss dominated willow carrs, in which the dominant moss species are Sphagnum squarrosum and/or Sphagnum fimbriatum subsp. fimbriatum, are called Salici cinereae-Sphagnetum recurvi sphagnetosum squarrosi subass. nov., on the contrary those, in which any species of the Sphagnum recurvum agg. (S. fallax, S. angustifolium, S. flexuosum) and/or Sphagnum palustre are dominant, are called Salici cinereae-Sphagnetum recurvi sphagnetosum recurvi subass. nov. The two submitted subassociations of peat moss dominated grey willow carr are very similar. They could be found together or independently, on a terrestrial or on a floating mire. All of them are a part of the successional series of mire development, which can result a continental raised bog under recent climate, too.
The paper examines a
pilgrimage to the Holy Land and Egypt in 1483 that led to the publication of
the remarkable incunable Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam (1486) by
Bernhard von Breydenbach, which included the very first printed Coptic
alphabet. Drawing attention to the influence this book exerted in the 15th and
16th centuries, the paper argues for regarding Breydenbach's publication as the
initiator of Coptic studies in Europe. Utilising three further accounts of the
same pilgrimage (published in 1556, 1843-6, and 1892), it also surveys how the
pilgrims perceived the monuments of Ancient Egypt.
The essay deals with the life and work of the great but contested figure of Catholicism of the last century, Simone Weil. It follows up the career of her life from the intellectual illumination (mystical visions) through her destiny event (submerged in the ‘sub-world’) up till her resistance to being baptised. It looks at her teachings together with Max Weber’s theory on modernisation, that is, the ‘Ausdifferenzierungen’ of various spheres of life (economy, politics, etc.) that excludes the possibility of life and of the ethics of brotherliness in the 20th century. The essay seeks to point out the life and work of Simone Weil as a whole but disapproves of this tenet. For she has found in everyday life holiness and sacrilege at the same time from which God is revealed. The essay deals with the question why she resisted being baptised emphasising that the main reason was her keeping aloof of the Old Testament and that in her view the Church showed totalitarian traits throughout its history.
This paper analyses the publication process of journal papers using a comparative methodology based on two indicators: the publishing delay of the manuscripts and the nationality of authors publishing in the journals under study. Using these indicators Hungarian foreign language journals are compared with some national journals of other countries
Reliable small-plot experiments play an important role in determining the value of hybrids, but the results of large-plot experiments, which give a better reflection of conditions and technologies, are needed to obtain reliable information on which hybrids can be produced most economically under specific cultivation conditions. Within the framework of the National Research Development Programme, large-scale tests are underway on new Hungarian maize hybrids, to promote the selection, introduction and propagation of the most economical hybrids for specific regions, ecological conditions and technological standards. The tests included hybrids Sze SC 271 (FAO 290), Dáma (FAO 300) and Mv 277 (FAO 320) from the very early maturity group, Sze SC 352 (FAO 340), Hunor (FAO 370) and Norma (FAO 380) from the early maturity group and Maraton (FAO 450) and Sze SC 463 R (FAO 490) from the medium maturity group, grown at 20 different locations in Hungary. Each year the yield differences between the locations reflected the extreme distribution of precipitation during the growing season in different parts of the country. High amounts of precipitation were required in the growing season to reach the highest yields, but moderately high yields were achieved over a wide range of rainfall levels.