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Studies in heavy ion activation analysis

IV.6Li induced reactions for chemical analysis

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: B. Lass, J. Ojo, and E. Schweikert

Abstract  

The use of 7 MeV6Li+ for heavy ion activation analysis was investigated. A survey of reactions, involving targets of lithium through oxygen inclusive, were studied for production of β+ radioactivation products with half-lives of 101−105 seconds. Specific activities for all reactions under the experimental conditions are reported and their use for analysis is assessed.

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Studies in heavy ion activation analysis

V. Determination of carbon in steel by6Li activation

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: J. Ojo, B. Lass, and E. Schweikert

Abstract  

Nondestructive heavy ion activation analysis has been used to determine the carbon content in various NBS SRM steel samples with a 7.0MeV6Li+ beam. The reaction12C(6Li, αn)13N allows for carbon analysis with the only possible interference being beryllium,9Be(6Li, 2n)13N. Under interference-free conditions, and employing a post-irradiation etch, the detection limit for carbon analysis in steel was 5 ppm.

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Abstract  

The radioactivity of the Opa river — irrigated farmlands in the south western Nigeria was determined using an HpGe based, low-level passive gamma-counting system. With the exception of two isotopes, the main radionuclides analysed in the sample were the progenies of238U and232Th. The other two isotopes were the naturally occurring40K and the anthropogenic137Cs. The result obtained showed elevated levels of radioactivity from all detected radionuclides compared to the published data for this area. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides is attributed to the use of phosphatic fertilizers for dry season vegetable cultivation along this river banks. The presence of the fission product137Cs could be traced to the fallouts occasioned by the various French nuclear tests in the Sahara desert, and probably, some effect of the more recent nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986.

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Abstract  

A complementary use of the comparative and the semi-absolute variations of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has enabled us to determine 22 different elements in a sample of natural fluorite originating from the younger granite province of Nigeria. The mineral has a brownish purple appearance with some veinlets having a deep purple coloration. Of all the 22 elements measured, Fe (851.36 ppm), Sb (7.69 ppm), Ag (87.4 ppm), Hg (2.71 ppm) and Se (1.97 ppm) are found to be exclusive to the veinlets while Au (109.15 ppm), Co (2.15 ppm) and W (173.20 ppm) are concentrated in the main matrix of the fluorite. With the aid of the semi-absolute method, it was possible to measure the Au concentration in the IAEA Soil-7 reference material to be 56.83±5.87% ppm. A qualitative electron microprobe analysis (EMA) showed that the bulk of the matrix is composed mainly of Ca and F, as expected.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Durosinmi, J. Ojo, A. Oluwole, O. Akanle, W. Arshed, and N. Spyrou

Abstract  

Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis (employed as a complementary technique) have been used to determine the concentration of 11 elements in blood samples and its components erythrocytes and plasma obtained, from three groups of subjects in Nigeria viz: sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects, subjects with sickle cell trait and normal control subjects. The results suggest that SCA subjects have significantly higher concentrations of Na, Cl, Ca and Cu in their whole blood and erythrocytes and a higher concentration, of Cl and Cu in their plasma relative to the control subjects. Furthermore, a significantly lower concentration of K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br and Rb were found in the whole blood and erythrocytes of the SCA subjects as compared to the controls while the concentration of K and Fe in the plasma of the SCA subjects were however, found to be significantly higher than that of the control group. The study also shows that there was no significant differences between the concentration of these 11 elements in the group with sickle cell trait and the normal control group.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: A. Oluwole, O. Asubiojo, J. Nwachukwu, J. Ojo, O. Ogunsola, J. Adejumo, R. Filby, S. Fitzgerald, and C. Grimm

Abstract  

A total of 40 crude oils from 10 different oil fields in Nigeria were analysed for 39 elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Significant correlations were found between Ni and V concentrations and Ni versus Se concentrations. The American Petroleum Institute (API) gravities are inversely correlated with total transition metal concentration of the oils but there is no obvious correlation of the V/Ni ratio with the age of the oil fields. The oils are very similar to North Alaska Type B oils in key transition metal parameters and cluster analysis results using the transition metals as variables indicate that the oils might have been formed from two closely related sources.

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Acinetobacter baumannii is a ubiquitous pathogen that has emerged as a major cause of healthcare-associated infections at Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital. Isolates were assayed according to standard protocol. The isolates were subjected to molecular techniques to detect blaOXA, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes in strains of the A. baumannii isolates.

The prevalence of A. baumannii was 8.5% and was most prevalent among patients in the age group 51–60 (36%); the male patients (63.6%) were more infected than their female counterparts. Patients (72.7%) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were most infected with this organism. The isolates showed 100% resistance to both amikacin and ciprofloxacin and 90.9% to both ceftriaxone and ceftazidime, while resistance to the other antibiotics used in this study were: piperacillin (81.8%), imipenem (72.7%), gentamycin (72.2%), and meropenem (63.6%). None of the isolates was, however, resistant to colistin. PCR results showed that blaOXA, blaTEM, and blaCTX-M genes were positive in some isolates, while blaSHV was not detected in any of the isolates.

This study has revealed that the strains of A. baumannii isolated are multiple drug resistant. Regular monitoring, judicious prescription, and early detection of resistance to these antibiotics are, therefore, necessary to check further dissemination of the organism.

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