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Abstract  

Combustion profiles of coal-limestone-paper blends were studied using thermogravimetric/ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The role of limestone in promoting the initial combustion of coal-paper blends and its ability to absorb sulphur oxides were examined.

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Summary

A new mixed C18-SCX SPE column and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have been used for determination of six β2-agonists residues in pig's liver. After hydrolysis, the six β2-agonists were extracted with 6:4 (v/v) ethyl acetate-isopropanol and then cleaned on a commercial mixed-adsorbent solid-phase extraction column. The eluted solution was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by the external standard method. Sample pre-treatment and GC-MS conditions were critically examined. The linear range was 0.005–2.00 mg L–1 and correlation coefficients were 0.9987–1.000. The LOD of mabuterol, clenbuteroland, and salbutamol was 0.2 μg kg–1. Average recoveries of these three compounds from spiked pig's liver ranged from 65.3 to 95.8% and relative standard deviations were between 5.4 and 9.9%. The LOD of cimaterol, bromobuterol, and ractopamine was 0.3 μg kg–1. Average recoveries of these three compounds from spiked pig's liver ranged from 63.8 to 88.1% and relative standard deviations were between 5.0 and 9.7%. These results indicate the method is highly sensitive, simple, inexpensive, and results in good purification. It could also meet requirements for analysis of pig's urine in domestic and import/export inspection work.

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Abstract  

Muonium (Mu= ++e-) is the bound state of a positive muon and an electron. Since the positive muon has a mass about 1/9 of the proton, Mu can be regarded as an ultra light isotope of hydrogen with unusually large mass ratios (MuHDT=1/9123). The muon spin rotation technique (SR) relies on the facts that (1) the muon produced in pion decay, + + + , is 100% spin polarized and (2) the positron from muon decay is emitted preferentially along the instantaneous muon spin direction at the time of the muon decay.In transverse field SR (TF-SR), the precession of the muon spin in muonium substituted radicals is directly observed by detecting decay positrons time differentially. From observed radical frequencies, the hyperfine coupling constants (A ) of C2H4Mu, C2D4Mu,13C2H4Mu, C2F4Mu, and C2H3FMu are determined. In the longitudinal field avoided level crossing (LF-ALC) technique, one observes the resonant loss of the muon spin polarization caused by the crossing of hyperfine levels at particular magnetic fields. The LF-ALC method together with the information onA obtained from TF-SR allows one to determine the magnitude and sign of the nuclear hyperfine constants at - and -positions. Results are compared with hydrogen substituted ethyl-radicals and isotope effects are discussed.

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Abstract  

Mn2O3/-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method, and the maximum monolayer dispersion capacity or dispersion threshold value of Mn2O3 on the surface of -Al2O3 was determined to be 13.08% from the decomposition mass loss of supported Mn(NO3)2 in the monolayer state. This was compared with the values estimated from a close-packed monolayer model and an interaction model. It was confirmed that the high activities and selectivities of the catalysts for benzoic acid hydrogenation to benzaldehyde are due to the monolayer dispersion of the Mn2O3 on the surface of -Al2O3.

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The present studies were conducted: (1) to determine which β-adrenoceptor subtypes are involved in progesterone and oxytocin (OT) secretion, (2) to examine whether noradrenaline (NA) acts directly on the cytochrome P-450scc and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), and (3) to study the effect of prostaglandin F, (PGF) on NA-stimulated steroidogenesis in luteal cells. The effect of NA on progesterone secretion from luteal slices of heifers on days 8–12 of the oestrous cycle was blocked by both atenolol (β1-antagonist) and ICI 118.551 hydrochloride (β2-antagonist). OT secretion was blocked only after treatment with ICI 118.551 hydrochloride (P < 0.05). Dobutamine (10−4−10−6), a selective β1 agonist and salbutamol (10−4−10−6), a selective β2 agonist, both increased progesterone production (P < 0.01) with an efficiency comparable to that produced by NA (P < 0.01). The increase of OT content in luteal slices was observed only after treatment with salbutamol at the dose of 10−5M (P < 0.01). Dobutamine had no effect on OT production at any dose. A stimulatory effect of NA on cytochrome P-450scc activity (P < 0.05) was demonstrated using 25-hydroxycholesterol as substrate. 3β-HSD activity also increased following NA (P < 0.01) or pregnenolone (P < 0.05) and in tissue treated with pregnenolone together with NA (P < 0.01). PGF decreased progesterone synthesis (P < 0.05) and 3β-HSD activity (P < 0.01) in tissue treated with NA. We conclude that NA stimulates progesterone secretion by luteal β1- and β2-adrenoceptors, while OT secretion is probably mediated only via the β2-receptor. NA also increases cytochrome P-450scc and 3β-HSD activity. PGF inhibits the luteotropic effect of NA on the luteal tissue.

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Summary

Dithiocarbamates fungicides (DTCs) are worldwidely used fungicides. Residue analytical methods on DTCs are usually based on headspace gas chromatography, which are not much stable and precise. In this study, a specific, simple and reliable method for determining DTCs fungicides residues was optimized and validated. The DTCs in foods and soils were extracted with an alkaline solution of EDTA and l-cysteine, followed by pH adjusting and methyl derivatization in methyl iodine solution. The organic layer of the reactants was separated, concentrated under vacuum and reconstructed in acetonitrile. DTCs residues were eluted on a C18 column and detected by HPLC-DAD at 272 nm. The S-alkyl derivatives of thiram, mancozeb and propineb were separated at different retention times. At fortified levels of 0.05 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg (residue expressed as CS2, in mg/kg, the same below), it is found that recoveries for DTCs spiked in apple, cucumber, tomato, rice and soil samples ranged from 70.8% to 105.3%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) from 0.6% to 13.7%. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.003 to 0.026 mg/kg and from 0.011 to 0.105 mg/kg for various foods and soils. This method was also applied to real sample tests.

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The role of oxytocin (OT) in the regulation of prostaglandin F (PGF ) secretion during luteolysis in gilts was studied using a highly specific OT antagonist (CAP-581). In Experiment 1 gilts on Days 14 to 19 of the oestrous cycle in Latin square design were used, to determine the dose and time of application of OT and CAP. In Group I (n = 6) gilts were treated intravenously with saline or with 10, 20 and 30 IU of OT. Concentrations of the main PGF metabolite i.e. 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prosta-glandin F (PGFM) were measured in blood samples as uterine response to the treatment. Twenty IU of OT was the most effective to stimulate PGFM release and this dose was used after CAP treatment in gilts of Groups II, III and IV. Gilts of Group II (n = 3) were injected into the uterine horns (UH) with saline (5 ml/horn) or CAP (2 mg, 3 mg and 4 mg; half dose/horn) and OT was injected (i.v.) 30 min thereafter. Any of the CAP doses given into the UH affected PGFM plasma concentrations stimulated by OT. In Group III (n = 4) gilts were infused (i.v.) for 30 min with CAP (9 mg, 14 mg and 18 mg/gilt) followed by 20 IU of OT. All doses of CAP effectively inhibited OT-stimulated PGF release, therefore 9 mg was selected for the further studies. Gilts of Group IV (n = 4) received OT 4, 6 and 8 h after CAP to define how long CAP blocks the OT receptors. Concentrations of PGFM increased after any of this period of time. Thus, we concluded that 9 mg of CAP infused every 4 h will effectively block OT receptors. In Experiment 2, gilts (n = 4) received CAP as a 30-min infusion every 4 h on Days 12-20 of the oestrous cycle. Control gilts (n = 3) were infused with saline. CAP infusions diminished the height of PGFM peaks (P < 0.05). Frequency of the PGFM (P < 0.057) and OT (P < 0.082) peaks only tended to be lower in the CAP-treated gilts. Peripheral plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and oestradiol-17β (E2) and the time of luteolysis initiation as measured by the decrease of P4 concentration were the same in CAP-and saline-treated gilts. The macroscopic studies of the ovaries in gilts revealed lack of differences between groups. We conclude that OT is involved in the secretion of luteolytic PGF peaks but its role is limited to controlling their height and frequency. Blocking of OT receptors did not prevent luteolysis in sows.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Hanxu Li, Xiang-Zhong Shen, B. Sisk, W. Orndorff, Dong Li, Wei-Ping Pan, and J. Riley

Abstract  

Improved thermoanalytical methods have been developed that are capable of quantitative identification of various components of fly ash from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustion system. The thermogravimetric procedure developed can determine quantities of H2O, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, CaSO4 and carbonaceous matter in fly ash with accuracy comparable to more time-consuming ASTM methods. This procedure is a modification of the Mikhail-Turcotte methods that can accurately analyze bed ash, with higher accuracy regarding the greater amount of carbonaceous matter in fly ash. In addition, in conjunction with FTIR and SEM/EDS analyses, the reduction mechanism of CaSO4 as CaSO4+4H2 ↔ CaS + 4H2O has been confirmed in this study. This mechanism is important in analyzing and evaluating sulfur capture in fluidized-bed combustion systems.

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine the possible formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of blends of refuse derived fuels (RDF) and coal under conditions similar to those of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. A series of experiments were conducted using a TG interfaced to FTIR. Additional experiments using a tube furnace preheated to AFBC operating temperatures were also conducted. The combustion products were cryogenically trapped and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The chlorination of phenols and the condensation reactions of chlorophenols were investigated in this study. A possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds such as dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, by chlorination and condensation reactions involving phenols, was proposed.

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