Authors:A. Nagy, J. Pauk, K. Takács and É. Gelencsér
The expression levels of two marker proteins (phosphinotrichin acetyltransferase, PAT and wheat germ agglutinin, WGA) in the transgenic wheat lines and their resistance to digestion in small intestine of rats were studied in comparison with their non-transgenic counterpart obtained from green house and field experiments of two subsequent years. The marker proteins were quantified by ELISA. It was found that the expression of PAT and WGA markedly increased when the wheat was grown in the field compared to that in the greenhouse. There were no significant differences between the WGA contents of the parent and transgenic wheat lines, but a broad range of expression of PAT and WGA was observed in the transgenic lines. PAT did not survive in the small intestine of the rats, while WGA was resistant to digestion in different ratios and was bound to the intestinal epithelium.
Authors:A. Nagy, Á. Baráth, J. Pauk and É. Gelencsér
The authors have developed transgenic wheat lines with broad range of herbicide resistance. The transgenic wheat, containing bacterial derived alien gene (bar) regulated under the maize ubiquitin promoter, is resistant to glyphosinate (phosphinotrichin) agent family. The presence of bar gene expression product (phosphinotrichin acetyl transpherase enzyme, PAT) was confirmed by PAT-specific ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay). The qualitative and quantitative chemical composition of the transgenic wheat lines in comparison with their non-transgenic counterpart (year 2000-2002) and protein utilization of the wheat wholemeal flours (year 2002) were summarized. Nutritional evaluation of the protein was based on a rat model by using N-balance experiments. Among the protein sources, heat-treated samples were also introduced into the experimental diets. It was found that heat denaturation of the proteins led to results with somewhat increased biological value indices. The introduction of GM technology did not affect food intake or nutritional performance of the rats.
Authors:F. Békés, K. Ács, Gy. Gell, Cs. Lantos, A-M. Kovács, Zs. Birinyi and J. Pauk
Consumption of “gluten-containing” diet causes disease for a significant minority of people who consume foods derived from wheat, rye, barley, and possibly oat. The fact is, however, that in several types of diseases related to the consumption of “gluten-containing” cereals, the trigger compounds are not components of gluten. The current view of medical experts is that, excluding people suffering from celiac disease, the majority of individuals who are feeling better on the “wheat-free” or “gluten-free” diet could select a food containing much healthier, low level of fermentable oligosaccharides (often called as FODMAP). To satisfy the specific health related demands of certain consumer groups, the challenge is in front of cereal breeding to develop new, “healthier” germplasms, suitable to produce such products by the food industry. This report aims to give an overview of some aspects of recent developments in this booming area, (i) summarizing the up-to-date knowledge on cereals-related health disorders; (ii) reporting on the status of developing celiac-safe cereals, and finally (iii) highlighting the potential of developing “healthier” spelt-based cereal products through the progress in an ongoing spelt breeding program.
Authors:Á. Halász, E. Horváth-Szanics, M. Nagy-Gasztonyi, J. Pauk and Gy. Hajós
Protein sets, enzyme activities and immune reactivity against wheat germ agglutinin in the albumin-globulin fractions of parent and herbicide resistant transgenic wheat lines were studied.Our results showed significantly increased amylase activities and increased immune reactivity against wheat germ agglutinin in the herbicide resistant transgenic wheat lines, investigated. The amylases and lectins belong to the plant food allergens; this explains why both scientists and consumers are interested in assessing the allergenic potential of plant proteins and the safety assessment of novel foods and GM foods in highlight of food safety. This paper is an important contribution to our database and the understanding of what is going on with genetic engineering of crop plants.
Authors:Z. Áy, Z. Kerényi, A. Takács, M. Papp, I. Petróczi, R. Gáborjányi, D. Silhavy, J. Pauk and Z. Kertész
The reliable monitoring of field virus infections of crop species is important for both farmers and plant breeders. The aim of this study was to detect virus infections of winter wheat in the 2006/2007 season. Twelve well-known winter wheat varieties were sown on two different dates (11
of October and 3
of November 2006). Leaves of two individuals from each genotype were collected on 23rd of April 2007 to detect the virus infections (
Barley stripe mosaic virus
Barley yellow dwarf virus
Wheat dwarf virus
— WDV and
Wheat streak mosaic virus
— WSMV) after an extra mild autumn- and wintertime. Virus infections were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aphid-transmitted BYDV-PAV was found frequently whereas other viruses were presented very rarely or were not detected. Forty-six per cent of the tested wheat plants proved to be infected by BYDV-PAV in ELISA, while using PCR, the virus infections with BYDV-PAV was found in 58% of the samples. Further, these results suggest that the optimal sowing time is critical in the control of cereal virus diseases, and additionally, that wheat varieties respond to the virus infections differently.
Authors:J. Pauk, C. Lantos, G. Somogyi, P. Vági, Z. Ábrahám Táborosi, A. Gémes Juhász, R. Mihály, Z. Kristóf, N. Somogyi and Z. Tímár
Spice pepper production has a history of almost 300 years in the southern part of Hungary. In this study the results of two biotechnological improvements are summarized. Anther and isolated microspore culture techniques were improved to release haploid and doubled haploid (DH) lines for spice pepper breeding. Both the anther and isolated microspore culture methods were successfully used in spice pepper haploid production. Microspore culture-derived structures were analysed to identify their different parts. Green plantlets were regenerated from embryos derived from both anther and microspore cultures. Their doubled haploid analogues were integrated into Hungarian spice pepper hybrid seed breeding programmes. One hybrid, Sláger, was released as a new genotype for spice pepper production in 2008 and two hybrid candidates (Délibáb and Bolero) are now being tested in official trials.