Triticum dicoccoides, wild emmer wheat, is the direct progenitor of cultivated wheats, has the same genome formula as durum wheat, and has contributed two genomes to bread wheat. It harbors many useful genes, more than can be used for wheat improvement. These genes are associated with many agronomic traits, abiotic stress tolerances, biotic stress resistances, grain protein content and micronutrient mineral concentrations. In this review, we summarized the achievements regarding gene discovery, i.e. gene identification, mapping and cloning in wild emmer wheat. These genes, controlling important agronomic traits, disease resistance, drought tolerance, high protein content and micronutrient mineral content, should be very useful for improvement of wheat production and food nutrition. However, the majority of genetic resources in wild emmer remain untapped, demonstrating the need for further exploration and utilization for wheat breeding programs. The large number of molecular markers, genomics tools and efficient cloning techniques available for wheat will greatly accelerate the application of wild emmer germplasm to wheat improvement and ensure sustainability of global wheat production.
The bread wheat germplasm comprising of 222 accessions was evaluated for tolerance to Sitobion avenae. A 1000-kernel weight loss rate and an unbiased test of the tolerance were used to quantify tolerance trait. The population structure analysis revealed three subpopulations in this wheat collection. After 103 SSR loci which evenly covered all wheat chromosomes were scanned for association, eight SSR loci significantly associated with S. avenae tolerance. The information reported in this study would be helpful for wise utilization of the S. avenae tolerant germplasm and selection of parental lines in wheat breeding programs.
Authors:S. Elfatih, Y. Peng, J. Ma, J. Peng, D. Sun, and W. Ma
A total of 232 accessions of tetraploid species, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf., 2n=4x=28, AABB) with a widespread origin of various countries were used in this study. Their high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition was identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among all accessions analyzed, 194 were homogeneous for HMW-GS, 38 were heterogeneous, and 62 possessed unusual or new subunits. The results revealed a total of 43 alleles, including 5 at Glu-A1 and 38 at Glu-B1, resulting in 60 different allele combinations. The Glu-B1 locus displayed higher variation compared with Glu-A1. Glu-A1c (55.2%) and Glu-B1aj (17.7%) were the most frequent alleles at Glu-A1 and Glu-B1, respectively. Two allele types (“null” and 1) at the Glu-A1 locus and three allele types (7OE + 8, 14+15, 8) at the Glu-B1 locus appeared to be the common types in the 232 accessions. A total of 23 new alleles represented by unusual subunits were detected at the Glu-A1 and the Glu-B1 locus.
Many investigations and researches studied the reaction
ability between high explosive RDX and RDX with other chemicals. However,
accidents still occur and operating problems exist among the RDX manufacturing
process. This study utilized inherent safety concepts and DSC thermal analysis
to assess the incompatible reaction hazards of RDX during usage, handling,
storage, transporting and manufacturing. This assessment includes thermal
curve observations and kinetic evaluations. A decomposition mechanism of the
incompatible reaction is proposed. Among all the contaminants evaluated in
this study, the existence of ferrous chloride tetrahydrate, ferric chloride
hexahydrate and nitric acid shifted the main endothermic and exothermic reactions
of RDX. These contaminants further advanced the exothermic temperature onset
average by about 53, 46 and 61C, respectively. The summarized results
suggest that ferric oxide, ferrous chloride tetrahydrate, ferric chloride
hexahydrate, acetone solution and nitric acid can influence the reaction and
thermokinetic properties of RDX. These chemicals could induce potential hazards
by causing temperature control instability, heating and cooling systems failure,
and produce an unexpected secondary explosion. According to the conclusions
of this study, potential incompatible RDX hazards during usage and manufacturing
could be avoided.
Authors:X. Feng, X. Geng, J. Peng, H. Hou, and Q. Bai
The displacement adsorption enthalpies (ΔH) of denatured α-Amylase (by 1.8 mol L−1 GuHCl) adsorbed onto a moderately hydrophobic surface (PEG-600, the end-group of polyethylene glycol) from solutions (x mol L−1 (NH4)2SO4, 0.05 mol L−1 KH2PO4, pH 7.0) at 298 K are determined by microcalorimeter. Further, entropies (ΔS), Gibbs free energies (ΔG) and the fractions of ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG for net adsorption of protein and net desorption of water are calculated in combination with adsorption isotherms of α-Amylase
based on the stoichiometric displacement theory for adsorption (SDT-A) and its thermodynamics. It is found that the displacement
adsorptions of denatured α-Amylase onto PEG-600 surface are exothermic and enthalpy driven processes, and the processes of
protein adsorption are accompanied with the hydration by which hydrogen bond form between the adsorbed protein molecules favor
formation of β-sheet and β-turn structures. The Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis shows that the
contents of ordered secondary structures of adsorbed α-Amylase increase with surface coverages and salt concentrations increment.
Authors:N. Kopelev, V. Chechersky, A. Nath, B. O, M. Larkin, J. Markert, J. Peng, and R. Greene
The as-prepared electron-doped system Nd2–xCexCuO4 (where x0.16) is not superconducting. It becomes superconducting only after removal of a minuscule amount of extraneous oxygen (0.02 of O per unit formula). Mössbauer effect studies were carried out for oxygenated and deoxygenated Nd2–xCexCu(57Co)O4 with x=0.14, 0.16, and 0.18. The spectra show evidence of oxygen anions attaching to the probe57Co in apical positions, to form 5- and 6-coordinated species. A conventional procedure for deoxygenation brings about little change in the Mössbauer spectra both above and below the optimal superconducting concentration; however, for x=0.16, a dramatic change is observed—a major fraction of the magnetically split five-coordinated species manifests itself as a paramagnetically relaxed doublet upon deoxygenation, which costitutes a microscopic measure of the superconducting volume fraction. This apparently anomalous behavior at x0.16, where the extraneous oxygen is more readily desorbed, may be related to an electronic and/or local structural change in the CuO2 plane.
Authors:J.-J. Peng, S.-H. Wu, H.-Y. Hou, C.-P. Lin, and C.-M. Shu
Over 90% of the cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) produced in the world is applied in the production of phenol and acetone. The additional
applications were used as a catalyst, a curing agent, and as an initiator for polymerization. Many previous studies from open
literature have verified and employed various aspects of the thermal decomposition and thermokinetics of CHP reactions. An
isothermal microcalorimeter (thermal activity monitor III, TAM III), and a thermal dynamic calorimetry (differential scanning
calorimetry, DSC) were used to resolve the exothermic behaviors, such as exothermic onset temperature (T0), heat power, heat of decomposition (ΔHd), self-heating rate, peak temperature of reaction system, time to maximum rate (TMR), etc. Furthermore, Fourier transform
infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry was used to analyze the CHP products with its derivatives at 150 °C. This study will assess
and validate the thermal hazards of CHP and incompatible reactions of CHP mixed with its derivatives, such as acetonphenone
(AP), and dimethylphenyl carbinol (DMPC), that are essential to process safety design.
Authors:X. Chen, W. Feng, W. Miao, Y. Yu, Y. Shen, C. Wan, and J. Peng
The power-time curves of Tetrahymena thermophila exposed to tributyltin (TBT) were detected by microcalorimetry. Metabolic rate (r) decreased significantly while peak time
(PT) increased with the enhancement of TBT level. Compared with the measured multibiomarker including catalase, lactate dehydrogenase,
glutathione S-transferase, ATPase and membrane fluidity, PT and r could be sensitive biomarkers for assessing TBT toxicity at cellular level. The effective concentrations obtained by them
were consistent to those obtained by the protozoan community toxicity test. As a result, the microcalorimetric assay of T. thermophila had a great potential in assessing TBT acute toxicity and monitoring TBT pollution in the freshwater ecosystem.
Authors:J. Wang, M. Liu, X. Tong, W. Peng, H. Cao, and W. Su
Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (SFI) is a traditional Chinese medicine injection, widely used to enhance immune function of clinical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) method was established for quality control of SFI, which could simultaneously semiquantitatively reflect the constituents displayed in the chromatographic profile of SFI. The relative retention time and relative peak areas of the 21 common peaks related to the reference peak were calculated. The validity and advantage of this method were validated by systematically comparing chromatograms of 10 batches of SFI samples with the analytical methods of principal component analysis and angle cosine method recommended by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Moreover, a total of 21 constituents of SFI were identified or tentatively characterized in the fingerprint via ultrafast liquid chromatography-diode array detection-quadrupole time-of-flight (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF) tandem mass spectrometry technique on the basis of the retention time, ultraviolet spectra, fragmentation patterns, and reported literatures. All the results proved that the technique was useful in comprehensive quality evaluation of SFI and further study.
Authors:P. Cai, H. Long, J. Liang, C. Wang, G. Deng, Z. Pan, Z. Peng, and M. Yu
Based on the known GA20-oxidase (GA20ox) cDNAs of barley and wheat, oligonucleotide primers were designed to isolate GA20ox genes from genomic DNA of Dasypyrum villosum. A total of 19 clones were obtained. Each of them contained an open reading frame encoding a putative 40-KDa protein of 359 amino acid residues. Twenty-one SNPs and 4 InDels were found and could divide the 19 sequences into 2 classes, designated as DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2, respectively. Q-PCR analyses showed that both DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 were in leaf blade, leaf sheath, stem, eustipes, root and developing spike. Similar expression levels were found between DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 in three stages. The total expression levels of DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 presented downtrend in leaf blade and ascend in stem, eustipes and developing spike along with the development of plants, respectively. However, they were firstly increased and then decreased in root from seeding stage to heading stage. These results revealed that the gene expression profile of DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 closely related to the growth and development of D. villosum.