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  • Author or Editor: J. Petrovszki x
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In this paper old historical maps and the sheets of the Habsburg Military Surveys are analyzed to distinguish different terrace levels in the Great Hungarian Plain (GHP), and particulary in the Körös/Criş river system. The GHP is located in the Pannonian Basin, in the eastern part of Hungary, which is a very flat area. Prior to the river regulations, its meandering rivers (eg. the Tisza and Körös Rivers) flooded the lower areas and created marshlands. The method of the integrated analysis of these different maps was the georeference; to geometric fit the sheets from different sources. While the First Military Survey shows the original extents of these areas the Second Survey displays the situation of the environment at the time of the flood control works in the second half of the 19th century, also with the planned cutoffs. The maps show not only the rivers, but the settlements as well. During this period, these villages and towns became bigger, so they needed more and more agricultural area. They cleared the forests and dried out the marshlands to have more ploughlands. These land types can also be separated easily in the survey sheets. Two study areas were selected to show the effectiveness of environmental reconstruction at some local engineering surveys and the Military Surveys, too. The extents of the different elevation terraces are mapped with striking accuracy.

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This study reports on the in vivo effects of four endomorphin-2 (EM-2) derivatives (EMD1-4) containing unnatural amino acids, i.e. 2-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid (Achc2), para-fluorophenylalanine (pFPhe4), β-methylphenylalanine (βMePhe4) and/or 2′,6′-dimethyltyrosine (Dmt1). After induction of osteoarthritis by monosodium iodoacetate into the ankle joint of male Wistar rats, a chronic intrathecal catheter was inserted for spinal drug delivery. The mechanical threshold was assessed by a dynamic aesthesiometer. Intrathecal injection of the original EM-2 and the ligands (0.3–10 μg) caused dose-dependent antiallodynic effects. The comparison of the different substances revealed that EMD3 and EMD4 showed more prolonged antinociception than EM-2, and the effects of the highest dose of EMD4 were comparable to morphine, while EMD3 caused paralysis at this dose. The potency of the different ligands did not differ from EM-2. The results show that the derivatives of EM-2 have similar in vivo potency to the original ligand, but their effects were more prolonged suggesting that these structural modifications may play a role in the development of novel endomorphin analogues with increased therapeutic potential.

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