A model of human resource (HR) practices in the subsidiary units of multinational corporations (MNC’s) in Hungary was developed from a review of the literature. This model describes the evolution of different HR variables in the light of external (macro) and internal (firm specific) factors. Based on components of this model, an interview-based survey of top level HR executives at 42 subsidiaries of large multinational companies in Hungary was completed. Results suggest that local subsidiary HR executives still maintain significant authority over their functional processes vis-à-vis the corporate office and expatriates are used less now than in earlier stages of development. Critical issues facing these executives varied by stage of competitive development between 1988 and 2005, HR staff continue to have significant in-country head counts, consulting is largely limited to training and development activities and most privately owned subsidiaries perceive unions as a marginal institution in Hungary today. The paper concludes with a series of limitations based on the interview processes and small sample size and a discussion of areas for further regional and national research development relevant to the model.
This paper seeks to address the similarities and differences between HR practices and policies of private and public sector organisations by reporting the results of our analysis based on the CRANET database. In our paper detailed statistical analysis is made for the three geographical subsets (New Public Management Countries, Eastern Europe, and All Other Countries) of the CRANET Survey 2004–2005. In light of CRANET data we review whether public sector reforms driven by radical structural changes, privatisation of certain government functions, or adaptation of New Public Management technologies could have or could not have eliminated the most important distinguishing features of public and private sector organisations in the field of HRM.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of salicylic acid (SA) pre-treatment on the salt stress acclimation of tomato plants (
Mill. L. cv. Rio Fuego). The antioxidant defence and detoxifying capacity of the tissues were analysed by measuring the accumulation of soluble, non-enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanins) and the activities of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) at low (10
M) and high (10
M) SA concentrations in plants exposed to 100 mM NaCl. GSTs are a diverse group of enzymes that catalyse the detoxification of xenobiotics and other toxic organic compounds, and anthocyanins are among the few endogenous substrates that bind to GSTs and are sequestered to the vacuole. It was found that 10
M SA pre-treatment improved the acclimation of tomato to high salinity. SA pre-treatments increased the accumulation of anthocyanins both in the presence and absence of 100 mM NaCl. The extractable GST activity of tissues increased under salt stress in young leaves and roots of the control and in plants pre-treated with 10
M SA, while the extractable GST activity in these organs was reduced by 10
M SA. It is suggested that elevated GST activity is a prerequisite for successful acclimation to high salinity in tomato plants pre-treated with SA, but it may also be a symptom of tissue senescence.