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Abstract  

Kinetics of oxidation of Fe-Cr steel containing 25 wt.-percent Cr was studied as a function of temperature (1023–1173 K) for up to 480 h in flowing air, which corresponds to SOFC cathode environment operating conditions. The oxidation process was found to be a parabolic, suggesting that the diffusion of ionic defects in the scale is the slowest, rate determining step and it occurs predominantly by short-circuit diffusion paths. Comparison of the determined activation energy of oxidation of the studied steel with literature data indicates that at 1098–1173 K the chromia scale grows by the outward solid-state diffusion of chromium interstitials, whereas at 1023–1098 K — through a significant contribution of counter-current oxygen/chromium diffusion along Cr2O3 grain boundaries. The oxide scales were composed mainly of Cr2O3 with a continuous thin Mn1.5Cr1.5O4 spinel layer on top of the chromia scale. The oxidation test results on Fe-25Cr steel demonstrate the applicability of the commercial type DIN 50049 stainless steel as interconnect for SOFC.

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Abstract  

Experimental results of positron annihilation experiments in solutions of n-butanol in three diols are compared to those of ultrasonic velocity and absorption. Variations of the annihilation parameters with composition show that the effect of the hydrophobic solute on the original diol structure is rather limited and occurs only in the system where ethylene glycol is the solvent. Subtle similarities were found when compared it to the respective results for similar aqueous systems, suggesting that crystalline-like solvates are forming in ethylene glycol. However, no such evidences were found for the systems where butanediols are the solvents. Ultrasonic investigations do not confirm formation of any specific structures. This is caused, most possibly, by the fact that compressibility of solvates is close to those of the pure components and/or that of unstructured medium (regular solution).

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Abstract  

The results of positron annihilation experiments of solutions of n-hexanol in diols are compared to those of ultrasonic velocity and absorption. Variations of the annihilation parameters with composition allow the conclusion that the effect of hydrophobic solute on the original diol structure is limited. There are, however, significant similarities with the results known for aqueous systems, suggesting that clathrate-like solvates are forming in ethylene glycol, the phenomenon called here is a hydrophobic-like solvation. No evidences for it were found for the systems containing butanediols as solvents. Unfortunately, ultrasonic investigations do not confirm the formation of any specific structures, most possibly because the compressibilities of solvates are close to those of the pure components.

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Abstract  

The results of positron annihilation experiments in aqueous solutions of 1,2- and 1,6-hexanediols were compared to those of ultrasonic velocity. For the former, the positron annihilation measurement shows strong hydrophobic interactions and formation of clathrate-like hydrates in solution, although their stoichiometries as well as architecture are untypical. Ultrasonic data for this system seem to be strongly influenced by a relaxation process and do not allow to conclude about formation of open-work structures in this system. For the system water + 1,6-hexanediol both the ultrasonic and annihilation methods suggest formation of labile, water-rich hydrates. They are very weak compared to those existing in the water + 1,2-hexanediol, what results from the hydrophilic hydration competing the hydrophobic one.

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Abstract  

The fabrication method of superconducting thin films of compositions HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ (Hg-1223) and Tl2Ba2CuOy (2201) on single-crystalline SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 substrates is reported. The highest obtained T c was 134 K and J c over 106 A cm–2 at 77 K. High pressure DTA(HP-DTA) was applied to grow mercury- and thallium-based high-temperature superconducting crystals and thin films, to identify melting points of particular phases within these oxide systems and determine suitable processing conditions. The DTA system operates at the: maximum temperature of 1200C, volume up to 5 cm3, working pressure up to 1.5 GPa and at a working atmosphere — inert gas with up to 25% oxygen.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Espen Aarseth, Anthony M. Bean, Huub Boonen, Michelle Colder Carras, Mark Coulson, Dimitri Das, Jory Deleuze, Elza Dunkels, Johan Edman, Christopher J. Ferguson, Maria C. Haagsma, Karin Helmersson Bergmark, Zaheer Hussain, Jeroen Jansz, Daniel Kardefelt-Winther, Lawrence Kutner, Patrick Markey, Rune Kristian Lundedal Nielsen, Nicole Prause, Andrew Przybylski, Thorsten Quandt, Adriano Schimmenti, Vladan Starcevic, Gabrielle Stutman, Jan Van Looy, and Antonius J. Van Rooij

Concerns about problematic gaming behaviors deserve our full attention. However, we claim that it is far from clear that these problems can or should be attributed to a new disorder. The empirical basis for a Gaming Disorder proposal, such as in the new ICD-11, suffers from fundamental issues. Our main concerns are the low quality of the research base, the fact that the current operationalization leans too heavily on substance use and gambling criteria, and the lack of consensus on symptomatology and assessment of problematic gaming. The act of formalizing this disorder, even as a proposal, has negative medical, scientific, public-health, societal, and human rights fallout that should be considered. Of particular concern are moral panics around the harm of video gaming. They might result in premature application of diagnosis in the medical community and the treatment of abundant false-positive cases, especially for children and adolescents. Second, research will be locked into a confirmatory approach, rather than an exploration of the boundaries of normal versus pathological. Third, the healthy majority of gamers will be affected negatively. We expect that the premature inclusion of Gaming Disorder as a diagnosis in ICD-11 will cause significant stigma to the millions of children who play video games as a part of a normal, healthy life. At this point, suggesting formal diagnoses and categories is premature: the ICD-11 proposal for Gaming Disorder should be removed to avoid a waste of public health resources as well as to avoid causing harm to healthy video gamers around the world.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Antonius J. van Rooij, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michelle Colder Carras, Daniel Kardefelt-Winther, Jing Shi, Espen Aarseth, Anthony M. Bean, Karin Helmersson Bergmark, Anne Brus, Mark Coulson, Jory Deleuze, Pravin Dullur, Elza Dunkels, Johan Edman, Malte Elson, Peter J. Etchells, Anne Fiskaali, Isabela Granic, Jeroen Jansz, Faltin Karlsen, Linda K. Kaye, Bonnie Kirsh, Andreas Lieberoth, Patrick Markey, Kathryn L. Mills, Rune Kristian Lundedal Nielsen, Amy Orben, Arne Poulsen, Nicole Prause, Patrick Prax, Thorsten Quandt, Adriano Schimmenti, Vladan Starcevic, Gabrielle Stutman, Nigel E. Turner, Jan van Looy, and Andrew K. Przybylski

We greatly appreciate the care and thought that is evident in the 10 commentaries that discuss our debate paper, the majority of which argued in favor of a formalized ICD-11 gaming disorder. We agree that there are some people whose play of video games is related to life problems. We believe that understanding this population and the nature and severity of the problems they experience should be a focus area for future research. However, moving from research construct to formal disorder requires a much stronger evidence base than we currently have. The burden of evidence and the clinical utility should be extremely high, because there is a genuine risk of abuse of diagnoses. We provide suggestions about the level of evidence that might be required: transparent and preregistered studies, a better demarcation of the subject area that includes a rationale for focusing on gaming particularly versus a more general behavioral addictions concept, the exploration of non-addiction approaches, and the unbiased exploration of clinical approaches that treat potentially underlying issues, such as depressive mood or social anxiety first. We acknowledge there could be benefits to formalizing gaming disorder, many of which were highlighted by colleagues in their commentaries, but we think they do not yet outweigh the wider societal and public health risks involved. Given the gravity of diagnostic classification and its wider societal impact, we urge our colleagues at the WHO to err on the side of caution for now and postpone the formalization.

Open access