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  • Author or Editor: J. Qureshi x
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Abstract  

Rapid radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) procedures were developed and employed for the determination of 32 trace impurities in high purity aluminum thin foils. Anion exchange column chromatography was developed for the sequential group chemical separation of various elements which helped in reducing the spectral interferences and improving the sensitivity of the method. The procedure is simple and requires a very short time to separate the elements in three groups for radiometric assay. To determine very low contents of uranium and thorium,239Np and233Pa as activation products were separated using anion exchange and coprecipitation methods. The impurity contents were found to be low, therefore, their adverse effects on microelectronic devices would be negligible. Our data could partially be compared with the data reported in literature.

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Abstract  

Extensive use of pan, by one-tenth of world"s population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in its ingredients. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 36 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in its four basic ingredients, leaf of betel pepper, betel nut, catechu and lime. The radiochemical separation methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. This study provides the base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in these ingredients. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through pan was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits.

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Abstract  

Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element.

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Summary  

Extensive use of coffee, by one-third of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in it. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 20 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in four samples of coffee beans of various origins and two instant coffee brands most commonly consumed in Pakistan. This study provides the base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in coffee. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through coffee was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits.

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Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of 29 trace impurities is high-purity semiconductor grade Ge and Si. In order to determine very low contents of uranium and thorium,239Np and233Pa activation products were separated using anion exchange and LaF3 coprecipitation methods. The impurity contents were found to be very low, and therefore their adverse effects would be negligible.

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Abstract  

IAEA and NBS biological certified reference materials have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and concentration of 17 elements was determined. The elements determined were either completely missing or their certified values were not given in the original compilations. For quality assurance of our work, a comparison of data on missing trace elements in some of the CRMs has been presented. It seems that second round of analysis for the certification of these elements would be useful.

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Abstract  

Neutron capture gamma-ray activation analysis technique has been used for the non-destructive analysis of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn and B in stainless steel and iron ore samples. It has been shown that the use of low energy capture gamma-rays, ranging from 0.2 to 1.4 MeV, helps considerably in reducing the time of analysis. The problem of congestion of peaks due to compton continuum and the double and single escape peaks in this region of the spectrum has been overcome by using a Ge(Li) detector in conjunction with a 15.25 cm thick bifurcated NaI(Tl) annulus in anticompton mode. The results obtained by this technique have been compared with those of the chemical analysis.

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Summary

Ashwaghanda, Withania somnifera, is one of the most widely used herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. Leaves and roots are the traditionally used parts of the plant. An RP-HPLC method using a binary acetonitrile-water gradient containing 0.1% acetic acid has been developed for analysis of withaferin A. The method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and used for analysis of the withanolide content of the flowers, leaves, and roots of W. somnifera. The withanolide content was highest in the flowers.

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Abstract  

The thermal behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was studied in the presence of AlBr3 using TG-DTA-DTG, IR and Py-GC-MS techniques. Degradation products were identified. It was found that PMMA started degrading at a lower temperature due to the generation of free radicals (Br), being the product of decomposition of AlBr3. Despite early destabilization of the system, stabilization zone was also highlighted. Flammability test was conducted to check the affectivity of AlBr3. Degradation mechanism has been proposed. Pyrolysis of the system (PMMA–AlBr3) was also monitored by heating it at different temperatures.

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