The aim of the study was to establish normal echocardiographic values of the left atrium just above the mitral annulus (LAama) in healthy dogs. In the first part of the study 20 dogs of various breeds were examined. The diameter of the left atrium just above the mitral annulus (LAama) was compared to the linear (left to right) dimension of the left atrium (LAr-l) as published earlier. There was a linear relationship between LAr-l and the body weight (LAr-l = 0.5061 BW (kg) + 22.206; R2 = 0.81), but the proportion of LAr-l/LAama was independent of the body weight (LAr-l/LAama = 0.0004 BW (kg) + 1.0833; R2 = 0.01). In the second part of the study the left atrial diameter just above the mitral annulus (LAama) was measured in 121 dogs of various breeds. There was a positive linear relationship (R2 = 0.697; p < 0.001) between body weight and LAama (LAama = 0.54 BW (kg) + 18.502 ± 4.76), but there were no significant correlations between the age of animals and LAama (p = 0.45) as well as between the gender of animals and LAama (p = 0.78). Two-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) determination of LAama as described in the present study can be recommended for use in those dogs where measurement of LAr-l encounters technical difficulties. In these cases LAr-l can be calculated from LAama using the formula LAr-l/LAama = 0.0004 BW (kg) + 1.0833, worked out in the first experiment.
Authors:Z. Bakos, K. Vörös, Heidi Kellokoski and J. Reiczigel
The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of thoracic percussion and ultrasonography with the help of distance measurements and statistical methods in the determination of the caudal lung border in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). Examinations were performed on 11 healthy, warm-blooded horses of different breeds, age and grade of disease. First, the caudal lung border was determined by the traditional indirect percussion method in the 10th, 12th, 14th and 16th intercostal spaces at the end of inspiration and expiration on both sides of the thorax. To apply standardised measurements, a fix point was chosen as described earlier by the same authors for healthy horses. The distance between this point and the caudal lung border was measured with a tape-measure. Percussion was followed by ultrasonographic determination of the caudal lung border. Measurements were performed in the same way as described for the percussion technique. Mean values and standard errors of absolute values of differences between percussion and ultrasonographic measurements were the following, in centimetres (10th, 12th, 14th and 16th intercostal spaces). Left side expiration: 1.4, 0.4; 0.8, 0.2; 0.9, 0.2; 0.8, 0.4; left side inspiration: 0.8, 0.3; 1.5, 0.3; 1.4, 0.3; 1.1, 0.3; right side expiration: 2.1, 1.0; 2.1, 0.5; 1.6, 0.5; 0.8, 0.1; right side inspiration: 1.5, 0.7; 1.2, 0.6; 0.8, 0.2; 0.8, 0.3, respectively. Ultrasonography proved to be reliable in determining the caudal lung borders in horses with RAO. Results of the percussion examination did not differ significantly from those of the ultrasound method which was used as a reference technique. The differences between inspiration and expiration were greater in horses with RAO than in healthy horses in a previous study. Based on these results, percussion can be used as an integrated part of the physical examination in diagnosing caudal shift of the caudal lung border of horses suffering from RAO.
Authors:A. Al-Samman, K. Molnár, Cs. Székely and J. Reiczigel
The weight of internal organs (swimbladder, kidney, liver, spleen) in relation to the body weight was studied in common carp fingerlings divided into three groups on the basis of swimbladder appearance and microscopic examination of the kidney. The fish had been collected from different Hungarian fish farms at the time when swimbladder inflammation (SBI) usually occurs (in July and August). The first group comprised fish with severe signs of SBI and massive renal sphaerosporosis, the second group consisted of fish with milder swimbladder changes and/or kidney infection by a low number of Sphaerospora renicola, while the third group was constituted by infection-free common carp fry. Statistical analysis of swimbladder, kidney, liver and spleen weight in relation to the body weight revealed that in the infected groups the internal organs were substantially enlarged. This suggests that in common carp fry with SBI the swimbladder changes are accompanied by reno-, hepato- and splenomegaly.
Authors:Noémi Tarpataki, Kinga Pápa, J. Reiczigel, P. Vajdovich and K. Vörös
Medical records of 600 dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis were reviewed and evaluated with reference to history, geographical distribution, breed predilection, clinical signs and positive reactions to allergens as determined by intradermal skin testing (IDT) manufactured by Artuvetrin Laboratories**. In 66.6% of dogs, the age of onset of atopic dermatitis was between 4 months and 3 years. Dogs living in the garden suburb of Budapest were more sensitive to house dust mites, fleas and moulds, and dogs from the western part of Hungary were more sensitive to weeds than to other allergens (p < 0.01). Positive reactions were most common to Dermatophagoides farinae followed by human dander. The breed distribution found in the present study was consistent with that reported in the literature, except for the breeds Hungarian Vizsla, Pumi, French bulldog, Doberman Pinscher and Bobtail which were over-represented among atopic dogs compared to the breed distribution of the general dog population of a large city in Hungary. Breeds with verified adverse reaction to food were Cocker spaniels, French bulldogs, Bullmastiffs, Bull terriers, St. Bernards, Tervurens, West Highland White terriers and American Staffordshire terriers (p < 0.05). The clinical signs of atopic dermatitis and their occurrence are in accordance with the data described in the literature.
Authors:Á. Máthé, K. Vörös, L. Papp and J. Reiczigel
Clinical observations of Babesia canis infection in 63 dogs during a 1-year period are summarised, demonstrating the pathogenicity of the Babesia strain endemic in Hungary. Most patients had babesiosis in the spring and autumn, correlating with the seasonal activity of ticks. Male animals appeared in higher numbers, probably due to an overrepresentation of outdoor dogs. Uncomplicated babesiosis was diagnosed in 32 cases. The disease affected dogs of any age in this study. Symptoms were similar to those published from other parts of the world: lethargy, fever, splenomegaly, pallor, icterus, haemoglobinuria and presence of ticks were the most common observations. Thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and neutropenia were frequent haemogram changes. Imidocarb appeared to be highly effective in eliminating the Babesia infection. Thirty-one animals demonstrated babesiosis with complications. Most Rottweilers (7/9) developed complicated disease. Old age was a risk factor for multiple complications. Multiple organ manifestations had poor prognosis. Hepatopathy (44%), pancreatitis (33%), acute renal failure (ARF; 31%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC; 24%) were frequent complications, while immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA; 10%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; 6%) and cerebral babesiosis (3%) were rarely observed. There was a significant difference between the mean age of dogs having uncomplicated disease, babesiosis with a single complication and babesiosis with multiple complications (3.4, 4.8 and 8.6 years, respectively, p < 0.001). The recovery rate (78, 68 and 25%, respectively, p = 0.005) and mortality rate (3, 21 and 67%, respectively, p < 0.001) also tended to differ significantly in these groups. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and DIC are two possible pathways leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in babesiosis. DIC was found to predict MODS more sensitively in this study than SIRS: there were 6 animals developing MODS out of 11 identified with DIC, while only 5 dogs developed MODS out of 22 having SIRS.
Authors:L. Makrai, L. Fodor, I. Vendég, G. Szigeti, B. Dénes, J. Reiczigel and J. Varga
In order to improve the isolation rate of Rhodococcus equi from animals and soil, the efficacy of four previously described selective media (CAZ-NB, M3T, NANAT and TINSDALE) and that of four other media (NC, PNP, TCP and TVP) composed by us was compared and evaluated. Two selective plating media proved to be the best for the isolation of R. equi from contaminated samples. One of them was CAZ-NB containing ceftazidime, novobiocin and cycloheximide, while the other was the newly composed TCP containing trimethoprim, cefoperazone, polymyxin B, cycloheximide and potassium tellurite as selective components. These two media allowed the growth of at least 62-72% of R. equi present in the artificially contaminated samples, and the inhibition of unwanted contaminant bacteria and fungi was satisfactory with both media. TCP medium proved to be superior to CAZ-NB since the colony morphology of R. equi was much more characteristic (shiny, smooth, black colonies 3-5 mm in diameter) on it, and it inhibited the unwanted contaminant bacterial and fungal flora more effectively, especially in the case of faecal and soil samples. Therefore, TCP is recommended as a new, highly selective plating medium for the isolation of R. equi from contaminated samples.
Authors:V. Jurkovich, J. Kutasi, Hedvig Fébel, J. Reiczigel, E. Brydl, L. Könyves and P. Rafai
A study was conducted to obtain data on the effects of a fungal fibrolytic enzyme preparation (Rumino-zyme, with 250 FXU/g xylanase activities) from Thermomyces lanuginosus on some rumen fermentation parameters in sheep. Ruminal fluid samples were taken just before the morning feeding and then 2 h and 4 h after feeding. Xylanase activity, pH, concentration of ammonia and volatile fatty acids were measured. The enzyme supplementation did not affect the pH but increased the xylanase activity and the total VFA concentration of the rumen fluid. The molar proportion of acetate increased, propionate was not affected and butyrate decreased after enzyme administration. The concentration of ammonia also decreased after supplementation with the enzyme product. It can be concluded that the xylanase enzyme preparation from T. lanuginosus induced favourable changes in the major rumen fermentation parameters in sheep.
Authors:Katalin Kovács, N. Velich, T. Huszár, G. Szabó, G. Semjén, J. Reiczigel and Zsuzsanna Suba
Animal experiments were carried out with osteoconductive bone substitute β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), with the aim of assessing the effects of the growth factors synthesised by thrombocytes on the speed of β-TCP incorporation and on the quality of newly formed bone. The question to be answered was the extent to which platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerated the resorption of β-TCP and the formation of new bone. Two teeth were removed symmetrically from each side of the mandible of 12 Beagle dogs; the resulting cavities were filled on one side with β-TCP alone, and on the other side with a mixture of β-TCP + PRP (obtained from autologous blood). The quality of the newly formed bone and the effects of this PRP were studied by histological and histomorphometric methods. In week 6, bone formation was already more effective when PRP was applied in comparison with β-TCP alone, and in week 12 the growth was significantly greater. The results demonstrate that the use of PRP accelerates the remodelling of new bone created by β-TCP.
Authors:Judit Juhász, P. Nagy, Margit Kulcsár, G. Szigeti, J. Reiczigel and Gy. Huszenicza
The effect of 10-day zearalenone administration starting 10 days after ovulation was studied in 6 cycling trotter mares in the summer period. After an entire oestrous cycle (Cycle 1), mares were given 7 mg purified zearalenone per os daily (1 mg/ml in ethyl alcohol) beginning on Day 10 of Cycle 2. Toxin exposure was continued until the subsequent ovulation. Luteal function and follicular activity were monitored daily by rectal palpation, ultrasonography and blood sampling for progesterone. During toxin exposure, all animals were in good physical condition. The toxin had no effect on the length of the interovulatory intervals, luteal and follicular phases. It did not influence significantly the plasma progesterone profiles (logistic curve parameters A1 to A6), the follicular activity (growth rate, maximum size of the ovulatory follicles, maximum number and the time of first increase in the number of large follicles) and the uterine oedema. It is concluded that in cyclic mares the methods used in this study could not detect any adverse effect of zearalenone (administered at a low dose similar to natural exposure) on reproduction.
Authors:Sz. Jánosi, Margit Kulcsár, P. Kóródi, L. Kátai, J. Reiczigel, S. J. Dieleman, Judit Anna Nikolic, G. Sályi, Piroska Ribiczey-Szabó and Gy. Huszenicza
The energy imbalance related predisposition to mastitis was studied in group-fed postpartum dairy cows (n = 333) kept in 4 large-scale units and producing milk of low somatic cell count (SCC). Blood samples were taken on Days 1-3 after calving for assaying some metabolites and hormones related to the negative energy balance (NEB). If mastitis was diagnosed later, aseptic milk samples were taken to identify the pathogens. Considering pathogen types [contagious pathogens: Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, Gram-positive (GP) environmental pathogens, and Gram-negative (GN) environmental pathogens + mastitis with no detectable pathogens (NDP)] separately, stepwise logistic regression was used to analyse the relation between the potential prognostic value of hormones and metabolites and mastitis outbreak. Only the elevated (= 1.00 mmol/l) serum ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels predisposed the cows to mastitis in the subsequent 4 weeks. This prognostic value of BHB was significant only in GN + NDP mastitis and in cases caused by GP environmental pathogens, but not in S. aureus mastitis (odds ratio: 5.333, 3.600 and 1.333, respectively).