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  • Author or Editor: J. Ren x
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Abstract  

TG and DTA analysis of Y1−xCaxBa2Cu3O7−y suggests that the stability of the 123 phase increases with increasing Ca contents. The O(1) in the Cu(1)-O chain is unstable but O(2) and O(3) in Cu(2)-O planes are very stable. There are hardly any oxygen vacancies in the Cu(2)-O plane. The replacement of Y by Ca does not make oxygen vacancies in Cu(2)-O planes but leads to an increase in the oxidation number of copper in Cu(2)-O planes.

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Abstract  

The complexes of [Sm(o-MOBA)3bipy]2·H2O and [Sm(m-MOBA)3bipy]2·H2O (o(m)-MOBA = o(m)-methoxybenzoic acid, bipy-2,2′-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV, XRD and molar conductance, respectively. The thermal decomposition processes of the two complexes were studied by means of TG–DTG and IR techniques. The thermal decomposition kinetics of them were investigated from analysis of the TG and DTG curves by jointly using advanced double equal-double steps method and Starink method. The kinetic parameters (activation energy E and pre-exponential factor A) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔH , ΔG and ΔS ) of the second-step decomposition process for the two complexes were obtained, respectively.

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Temperature uniformity and heating rate subjected to radio frequency (RF) heating have major impact on the quality of treated low moisture foods. The objective of this paper was to analyse the influence of electrode distance on the heating behaviour of RF on condition that the sample shape, size, and location between the electrodes were defined. Considering peanut butter (PB) and wheat flour (WF) as sample food, a 3D computer simulation model was developed using COMSOL, which was experimentally validated by a RF machine (27.12 MHz, 6 kW). Specifically, the electrode distances were selected as 84, 89, 93, 99 and 89, 93, 98, 103 (mm) for RF heating of PB and WF, respectively. Results showed that the simulated results and experimental data agreed well; the temperature-time histories of the RF heating of PB and WF were approximate straight lines; both the temperature uniformity index and the heating rate decreased with the increase of the electrode distance; the heating rate had a negative logarithmic linear relationship with the electrode distance, which was independent of the types, geometry shapes and sizes of low moisture foods.

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Knowledge of the chromosomal distribution of long terminal repeats (LTR) is important for understanding plant chromosome structure, genomic organization and evolution, as well as providing chromosomal landmarks that are useful for chromosome engineering. The aim of this study is to investigate the genomic distribution of Sabrina -like LTR pDbH12, which was first isolated from Dasypyrum breviaristatum (V b genome), on Triticeae species in relation to the genomic evolution and chromosome identification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that pDbH12 is present on Dasypyrum (V genome) and Hordeum (H genome) species with the hybridized signals covering the entire chromosomes. However, clone pDbH12 did not hybridize to the genomes of Secale, Triticum, Lophopyrum, Pseduoroengeria, Aegilops, Agropyron desertorum and Elymus. Thinopyrum intermedium displayed fourteen chromosomes that hybridized with pDbH12. Sequential FISH identified these chromosomes as belonging to the J s genome. Results from sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker and dot blot both support the FISH results, and the integrative results suggest that amplification of Sabrina -like LTR retrotransposons is an important factor which involved in the speciation process. Clone pDbH12 could serve as a cytogenetic marker for tracing chromatin from V or V b , H and J s genomes in wheat-alien introgression lines.

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Rye (Secale cereale) plays an important role in wheat improvement. Here we report a new triticale, named Fenzhi-1, derived from the wide cross MY11 (Triticum aestivum) × Jingzhou (Secale cereale) after the in vitro rye pollen has been irradiated by He-Ne laser. Morphologically, Fenzhi-1 is characterized by branched-spikes. Genetically, Fenzhi-1 displays stable fertility and immunity to wheat powdery mildew and stripe rust. In situ hybridization (FISH) and seed storage protein electrophoresis revealed that Fenzhi-1 is a new primary hexaploid triticale (AABBRR). The present study not only provides a new method to synthesize an artificial species, but also shows that Fenzhi-1 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement.

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Abstract  

Humic substances have attracted great interest in the investigation of metal ion behavior in the environment because of their special properties. Sorption and complexation of Pb2+ on MX-80 bentonite, LA bentonite, alumina and silica as a function of pH were studied in the presence and absence of fulvic acid (FA). The experiments were carried out in 0.01M and 0.001M NaNO3 solutions under ambient conditions. The results indicate that sorption of Pb2+ on the solid samples is strongly dependent on pH and FA. The sorption of Pb2+ is not influenced drastically by ionic strength. The nature of minerals/oxides, nature of humic substances and the composition of the solution are important factors in the behavior of metal ions in the environment. The results also indicate that FA has a positive effect on Pb2+ sorption at low and a negative effect at high pH values, and the results are discussed in the comparative complexation between FA-Pb2+ and Pb2+-minerals.

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Abstract  

A ternary binuclear complex of dysprosium chloride hexahydrate with m-nitrobenzoic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline, [Dy(m-NBA)3phen]2·4H2O (m-NBA: m-nitrobenzoate; phen: 1,10-phenanthroline) was synthesized. The dissolution enthalpies of [2phen·H2O(s)], [6m-HNBA(s)], [2DyCl3·6H2O(s)], and [Dy(m-NBA)3phen]2·4H2O(s) in the calorimetric solvent (VDMSO:VMeOH = 3:2) were determined by the solution–reaction isoperibol calorimeter at 298.15 K to be

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\Updelta_{\text{s}} H_{\text{m}}^{\theta }$$ \end{document}
[2phen·H2O(s), 298.15 K] = 21.7367 ± 0.3150 kJ·mol−1,
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\Updelta_{\text{s}} H_{\text{m}}^{\theta }$$ \end{document}
[6m-HNBA(s), 298.15 K] = 15.3635 ± 0.2235 kJ·mol−1,
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\Updelta_{\text{s}} H_{\text{m}}^{\theta }$$ \end{document}
[2DyCl3·6H2O(s), 298.15 K] = −203.5331 ± 0.2200 kJ·mol−1, and
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\Updelta_{\text{s}} H_{\text{m}}^{\theta }$$ \end{document}
[[Dy(m-NBA)3phen]2·4H2O(s), 298.15 K] = 53.5965 ± 0.2367 kJ·mol−1, respectively. The enthalpy change of the reaction was determined to be
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\Updelta_{\text{r}} H_{\text{m}}^{\theta } = 3 6 9. 4 9 \pm 0. 5 6 \;{\text{kJ}}\cdot {\text{mol}}^{ - 1} .$$ \end{document}
According to the above results and the relevant data in the literature, through Hess’ law, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of [Dy(m-NBA)3phen]2·4H2O(s) was estimated to be
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\Updelta_{\text{f}} H_{\text{m}}^{\theta }$$ \end{document}
[[Dy(m-NBA)3phen]2·4H2O(s), 298.15 K] = −5525 ± 6 kJ·mol−1.

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Abstract  

The decomposition reaction kinetics of the double-base (DB) propellant (No. TG0701) composed of the mixed ester of triethyleneglycol dinitrate (TEGDN) and nitroglycerin (NG) and nitrocellulose (NC) with cerium(III) citrate (CIT-Ce) as a combustion catalyst was investigated by high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) under flowing nitrogen gas conditions. The results show that pressure (2 MPa) can decrease the peak temperature and increase the decomposition heat, and also can change the mechanism function of the exothermal decomposition reaction of the DB gun propellant under 0.1 MPa; CIT-Ce can decrease the apparent activation energy of the DB gun propellant by about 35 kJ mol−1 under low pressure, but it can not display the effect under high pressure; CIT-Ce can not change the decomposition reaction mechanism function under a pressure.

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Authors: X. He, L. Wang, W. Pu, J. Ren, W. Wu, C. Jiang and C. Wan

Abstract  

Thermal analysis of sulfurization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with elemental sulfur was investigated by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis of the mixture of polyacrylonitrile and elemental sulfur up to 600°C. Due to the volatilization of sulfur, the different heating rate (10 and 20 K min−1) and different mixture proportion of polyacrylonitrile and elemental sulfur were adopted to run the analysis. The different heating rates make the DSC curves of sulfur different, but make the DSC curves of PAN similar. In the DSC curve of sulfur for the heating rate of 20 K min−1 around 400°C, a small exothermic peak occurs at 400°C in the wide endothermic peak around 380∼420°C, indicative of that there is an exothermic reaction around 400°C. In the DSC curves of the mixture, the peaks around 320°C are exothermic as the content of sulfur is below 3.5:1 and endothermic as the content of sulfur is over 4:1, indicating that one of the reactions between PAN and sulfur takes place around 320°C. In the TG curves of the mixture, the mass losses begin at 220°C, and sharply drop down from 280°C. The curves for the low sulfur content obviously show two steps of mass loss, and curves for the high sulfur content show only one step of mass loss, indicative of more sulfur is benefit for the complete sulfurization of PAN. This study demonstrates that the TG/DSC analysis can give the parameter for the sulfurization, even if the starting mixture contains the volatile sulfur.

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