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Authors: P. Fancsovits, Zsuzsa Tóthné, Á. Murber, J. Rigó and J. Urbancsek

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different stimulation protocols on oocyte granularity and to determine the influence of cytoplasmic granularity on further embryo development. A total of 2448 oocytes from 393 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were analysed retrospectively. Oocytes were classified into 5 groups according to cytoplasmic granularity. (A) no granule or 1–2 small (<5 μm) granules; (B) more than 3 small granules; (C) large granules (>5 μm); (D) refractile body; (E) dense centrally located granular area. Correlation between characteristics of hormonal stimulation, oocyte granularity and embryo development was analysed. The occurrence of cytoplasmic granularity was influenced by the patient’s age and characteristics of stimulation. The type of granulation had no effect on fertilization rate and zygote morphology. However, some type of granulation resulted in a lower cleavage rate and more fragmented embryos. Our results provided additional information on how hormonal stimulation affects oocyte quality. While cytoplasmic granularity seems not to have an effect on fertilization and embryo development, the presence of refractile body in the oocyte is associated with reduced cleavage rates and impaired embryo development.

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Authors: J. Varga, Krisztina Rigó, Csilla Lamper, J. Téren and G. Szabó

Kinetics of ochratoxin A production was examined in a number of ochratoxin producing isolates representing different sections of the Aspergillus genus. Both weak and high ochratoxin producers were tested using immunochemical or high-performance liquid chromatograhic methods. All isolates were found to produce the highest amounts of ochratoxin A after 7-10 days of incubation. Ochratoxin production varied between 30 - 5×105 ng ml-1 among the Aspergillus isolates tested. The A. albertensis and A. melleus isolates examined were found to produce ochratoxin A constitutively. A. albertensis produced the highest amounts of ochratoxin A at 30 °C after 7 days' incubation in YES liquid medium. Ergosterol content and ochratoxin production of A. albertensis cultures were in good correlation.

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The quality of oocytes and developing embryos are the most relevant factors determining the success of an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. However, there are very few studies analyzing the effects of different gonadotrophin preparations on oocyte and embryo quality. A retrospective secondary analysis of data collected from a prospective randomized study was performed to compare highly purified versus recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (HP-FSH vs. rFSH). The main outcome measures were quantity and quality of oocytes and embryos, dynamics of embryo development, cryopreservation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rate. The number of retrieved and of mature (MII) oocytes showed no significant differences. Fertilization rate was significantly higher in the HP-FSH group (68.9% vs. 59.9%, p = 0.01). We also found significantly higher rate of cryopreserved embryos per all retrieved oocytes (23.4% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.002) in the HP-FSH group. There were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy and in live birth rates. Oocytes obtained with HP-FSH stimulation showed higher fertilisability, whereas pregnancy and live birth rates did not differ between the groups. However, patients treated with HP-FSH may benefit from the higher rate of embryos capable for cryopreservation, suggesting that cumulative pregnancy rates might be higher in this group.

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Authors: F. Abel, G. Amsel, M. Bruneaux, C. Cohen, B. Maurel, S. Rigo and J. Roussel

Abstract  

The amplitude-energy relationships for surface barrier detectors were measured for4He and12C particles, as well as the corresponding energy resolutions. It is shown that the use of12C beams presents no marked advantage for increasing mass or depth resolution. On the other hand pile-up phenomena are drastically reduced by using12C backscattering. Applications are shown to the determination of trace amounts of Sb or Yb near the surface of iron. Gold contaminations of silicon surfaces were precisely measured within minutes down to 5·1011 gold atom/cm2, the limiting sensitivity being of the order of 1010 atom/cm2 for traces of heavy elements, such as Au, Hg, Pb, etc. Sensitivities for lighter elements are discussed.

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Authors: G. Amsel, B. Agius, D. Dieumegard, B. Maurel, J. Nadai, C. Ortega, S. Rigo, J. Siejka, M. Croset and G. Velasco
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Authors: G. Del Fiore, J. Peters, L. Quaglia, F. Boudjelida, M. Pardon, J. Piette, R. Cantineau, Ch. De Landsheere and P. Rigo

Abstract  

An automated continuous flow process has been developed for the synthesis of11C-ethanol and11C-butanol. These alcohols were synthesized via the same route. The reaction of11CO2 with methylmagnesium bromide or with n-propylmagnesium chloride, followed by a lithium aluminum hydride reduction and hydrolysis produced respectively11C-ethanol and11C-butanol. Preparation can be completed in 25 min. In each case the radiochemical purity, as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography /HPLC/ was greater than 98%. Biological quality control shows that the products are suitable for human use. The process has been completely automated to limit radiation exposure to personnel, reduce preparation time, and increase reproducibility.

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Authors: G. Del Fioe, J. Peters, L. Quaglia, J. Piette, R. Cantineau, C. De Landsheere, D. Raets and P. Rigo

Abstract  

The synthesis of11C-acetate has been achieved via carbonation of methyl magnesium bromide with11C-labelled carbon dioxide. Using this procedure, 7.4 GBq /200 mCi/ of11CO2 produced by the14 N/P,/11C nuclear reaction, was converted, within 20 min into11C-acetate with an activity higher than 2.22 GBq /60 mCi/. Chemical and biologic quality control shows that the product is pure, sterile, and pyrogen-free and therefore suitable for human use. Handling considerable amounts of activity has led us to automate the11C-acetate synthesis. The different parts of the system-programmable controller, sensors, automatic neutralization system-are described in detail.

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Authors: Ildikó Vastagh, T. Horváth, Z. Garamvölgyi, K. Rosta, A. Folyovich, J. Rigó, M. Kollai, D. Bereczki and A. Somogyi

Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes mellitus which is an important cardiovascular risk factor. We have evaluated whether preclinical morphological and functional arterial changes are present in GDM. Diameter, intima-media thickness (IMT), intima-media cross-section area (IMCSA) and elasticity features (compliance, distensibility coefficient, circumferential strain, stiffness index (SI) α and β, incremental elastic modulus) of the common carotid arteries (CCA) were studied in the 3rd trimester in 25 women with GDM, and 17 normal pregnant women matched for age and body mass index using an ultrasonographic vessel wall-movement tracking system and applanation tonometry. Mean IMT, IMCSA and SI α tended to be larger, whereas compliance was smaller in women with GDM but none of these differences were significant. Serum glucose (4.99±0.51 vs. 4.79±0.61 mmol/L, p=0.37) and HbA1c (5.33±0.27 vs. 5.36±0.47 mmol/L, p=0.85) proved normoglycemia in both groups. In conclusion, by the combination of methods we applied in this case control study, neither morphological nor functional characteristics of large elastic arteries differ significantly between well-treated normoglycemic women with GDM and non-diabetic pregnant women in the 3rd trimester.

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Authors: Katalin Kristóf, L. Janik, Kinga Komka, Ágnes Harmath, Júlia Hajdú, A. Nobilis, F. Rozgonyi, K. Nagy, J. Rigó and Dóra Szabó

The occurrence of Candida spp. was investigated during a three-year period in two neonatal intensive care units, Budapest, Hungary. The species distribution among the 41 analysed cases was the following: C. albicans (30/41, 73%), C. parapsilosis (10/41, 24%) and C. glabrata (1/41, 3%). All of the isolates were susceptible to the tested drugs. There was a significant difference in the birth weight, the gestational age <30 weeks and the occurrence of caesarean section between the C. albicans and the C. parapsilosis groups of the cases. Respiratory tract colonization was the same (76–77%) in the extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and the very low birth weight (VLBW) groups. Comparing the ELBW, VLBW, and >1500 g birth weight groups, significant difference was found in the parenteral nutrition, the gestation weeks <36 or <30, the polymicrobial infection and the transfusion. The ratio of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata was 9:7:1 in ELBW group; 6:3:0 in VLBW group and 15:1:0 in >1500 g group. The mortality rate for C. parapsilosis was higher than for C. albicans.

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Authors: N. Eszes, A. Bohács, Á. Cseh, G. Toldi, A. Bikov, I. Ivancsó, V. Müller, I. Horváth, J. Rigó, B. Vásárhelyi, Gy Losonczy and Lilla Tamási

Asthmatic inflammation during pregnancy poses a risk for maternal and fetal morbidities. Circulating T cell immune phenotype is known to correlate with airway inflammation (detectable by fractional concentration of nitric oxide present in exhaled breath (FENO)) in non-pregnant allergic asthmatics. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of peripheral T cell phenotype to FENO and clinical variables of asthma during pregnancy.We examined 22 pregnant women with allergic asthma in the 2nd/3rd trimester. The prevalence of Th1, Th2, regulatory T (Treg) and natural killer (NK) cell subsets was identified with flow cytometry using cell-specific markers. FENO, Asthma Control Test (ACT) total score and lung function were evaluated.Peripheral blood Th1, Th2, Treg, and NK cell prevalence were not significantly correlated to airway inflammation assessed by FENO in asthmatic pregnant women (all cells p > 0.05; study power > 75%). However, an inverse correlation was detected between Th2 cell prevalence and ACT total scores (p = 0.03) in asthmatic pregnancy.Blunted relationship between T cell profile and airway inflammation may be the result of pregnancy induced immune tolerance in asthmatic pregnancy. On the other hand, increased Th2 response impairs disease control that supports direct relationship between symptoms and cellular mechanisms of asthma during pregnancy.

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