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Abstract  

The fast irradiation facility Mach-1 installed at the Danish DR 3 reactor has been used in boron determinations by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using12B with 20-ms half-life. The performance characteristics of the system are presented and boron determinations of NBS standard reference materials as well as fertilizer materials are compared by literature value and spectrophotometric measurements, respectively. In both cases good agreement is obtained.

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The authors investigated the effect of feeding 2% sodium-hydroxide-treated (as-fed basis) or 2% formaldehyde-treated (crude protein basis) wheat to rumen-, duodenal- and ileocaecal-cannulated Holstein steers on rumen fermentation and ruminal and postruminal starch degradation. Feeding 2 kg/day wheat treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or formaldehyde did not affect negatively the main parameters of rumen fermentation, i.e. pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and microbial activity. Fibre degradation in the rumen was significantly improved when NaOH-treated wheat was fed. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that feeding NaOH- and formaldehyde-treated wheat to steers significantly increased the amount of starch that reached the small intestine. The amount of starch that entered the duodenum increased by 57% and 75% when steers were fed NaOH- and formaldehyde-treated wheat compared to the control phase, respectively. This higher quantity of starch was digested and absorbed, which can provide an increased glucose supply to the animals.

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Ten Holstein cows between 8 and 12 weeks in lactation were used to investigate the effect of feeding full-fat soybean, full-fat sunflower, and a Ca-soap source (Profat) on the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk. Cows were fed the experimental fat sources in the dosage of 500 g crude fat daily. The results indicated that milk CLA content increased in relation to the linoleic acid concentration of experimental fat supplements, namely full-fat sunflower increased the most and Profat increased the least the CLA concentration in milk. The strength of the correlation was r=0.62 between the linoleic acid concentration in feed and the CLA content in milk. The strength of correlation increased to r=0.69 when both linoleic acid and linolenic acid concentration of feed were used in the calculation. Considering milk production and the daily production of CLA in milk, the following equation described the relationship between the linoleic acid content of fat supplements and CLA concentration in milk: x=167.52+0.483×y; where x=CLA mg l −1 milk and y=linoleic+linolenic acid content of fat sources, g/day. Along with milk CLA, the trans -C18:1 concentration of milk also increased, but the magnitude of the increase was smaller compared to that of milk CLA.

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Abstract  

Hydrogen peroxide is a very versatile oxidizing agent, and it is also environmentally compatible considering that the products of its exothermic decomposition are oxygen and water.When kept in a clean temperature-controlled environment, the self-reaction (decomposition) rate is extremely low. However, it is well known that even a small amount of contamination will dramatically increase the reaction rate. This paper describes the use of the fast thermal activity interpreter (FTAI) instrument to examine the chemical reactivity of commercially available 50% hydrogen peroxide at two different temperatures (30 and 40C) both with and without contamination. The results show that at 30C a small amount of rust (330 ppm) increases the reaction rate of 50% hydrogen peroxide by a factor of 50. When the temperature is increased to 40C, the reaction rate is further increased by almost a factor of four. The implication for reactivity management is that at this contamination level most practical vessel sizes would require emergency venting capability. An evaluation was then performed to determine the emergency venting requirement for the safe transportation or storage of the contaminated hydrogen peroxide. It was determined that for quantities of the material less than 5 gallons, conventional breather vents would be sufficient to accommodate the gas evolved. However, for larger quantities, a safety relief device would be needed. For example, for a 400-gallon tote bin at 40C the required minimum vent area is estimated to be 4.3 in2, corresponding to a minimum vent diameter of 2.3 inches.

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The ruminal stability of Mepron M 85 and the effect of supplementation with Mepron M 85 on free methionine level of blood were studied in rumen-fistulated cows and rumen- and duodenum-fistulated growing bulls. In five rumen-fistulated cowsin situ69.5% and 64.6% of the methionine content of Mepron M 85 was found after ruminal incubation of 16 h and 24 h, respectively. Daily rations of the rumen-fistulated cows were supplemented with 15.0 g DL-methionine and 17.7 g Mepron M 85, which increased the free methionine level of blood from 13.64 (mol/L to 15.35 and 20.46 (mol/L, respectively, three hours after feeding. In the four rumen- and duodenum-fistulated growing bulls, supplementation with 15.0 g DL-methionine and 17.7 g Mepron M 85 increased the total methionine getting into the duodenum during 24 h from 14.99 g to 16.84 and 20.84 g, respectively. The influence of Mepron M 85 on milk production was studied in 35 pairs of Hungarian Fleckvieh × Holstein-Friesian cows. The animals were coupled on the basis of the number of finished lactations, milk production in the previous lactation, and the date of calving. Daily supplementation of 18.0 g Mepron M 85 increased daily milk production significantly (p < 0.05), by 1.24 litres. Milk fat content also increased significantly (from 3.10% to 3.19%, p < 0.05) in the experimental group. The supplementation did not influence milk protein content.

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