A procedure involving the irradiation of coal samples with 14 MeV neutrons and subsequent gamma-ray spectrometry of the irradiated
sample for the estimation of solfur in coal, has been outlined. The samples were irradiated with 14MeV neutrons from a Cockroft-Walton
type generator for one minute and then subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry for another minute using an automated transfer
cyclic system. Ten such cycles were repeated for accumulating events under the 2130 keV gamma ray photopeak belonging to34P (T=12.4 s) produced by the34S(n, p)34P reaction for assessing the lower level of detection, LLD, of Sulfur. Interferences due to the presence of other elements
in coal were also determined. Sulfur can be determined at LLD of 0.25% in coal provided a 5 g sample of the coal is irradiated
with a neutron flux of 5·109 n·cm−2·sec−1 assayed with a gamma ray spectrometer having a large hollow core Ge(Li) detector and an anti-Compton shield.
Corn starch nanoparticles (SNPs) were prepared by ultrasonication of starch for 40 min at an amplitude of 40%, which modified some properties of starch so that it could be used as a functional ingredient in food products. The cereal SNPs were characterized on the basis of their morphology, particle size, crystallinity, pasting and functional properties. The SNPs were globular in shape as revealed by TEM. There was a decrease in the crystallanity of SNPs, whereas the functional properties were enhanced in SNPs as compared to raw starch. SNPs had a less paste viscosity as compared to raw starch. Salad dressing was prepared by using SNPs as a fat replacer. The prepared salad dressing was examined for colour, viscosity, and sensory attributes. Overall 60% of fat was replaced using corn SNPs without compromising its quality characteristics.
Рассматривается инт ерполяционный проце сс типа Эрмита-Фейера с узлам и в корнях многочлена ЧебышеваТn(х). Известно, что есл и требовать, чтобы перв ые производные интерполяционных по лимонов обращались в нуль во всех корняхТn(х), то проце сс является сходящимся. В работе п олучены необходимые и достаточные условия сходимости подобног о процесса, когда в неко торыхk узлах требова ние обращения в нуль прои зводных не выполняется. В случая хk=1 иk=2 эта задача была р ешена ранее.
The potentiometric estimation of D2EHPA containing M2EHPA of various samples in reagent grade acetone was studied. The differential
plot of the results of analysis were determined using ORIGIN mathematical software for end point determination. Visual color
indicators were also tested for estimation of D2EHPA and M2EHPA, but the accuracy of measurement was less than the endpoint
determination by differential plots.
High yielding, stable wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars are needed for the diverse environments in West Asia to improve rural livelihoods. This study was conducted to determine the performance of elite wheat breeding lines developed by CIMMYT, to analyze their stability for grain yield across diverse environments, and to identify superior genotypes that could be valuable for varietal release. Genetically diverse 196 advanced breeding lines were evaluated across different sites in Afghanistan. Grain yield, days to heading and plant height were analyzed. Genotypic superiority for grain yield was determined using genotype and genotype × environment (GGE) biplot analysis. The experimental genotypes showed arrays of variation for grain yield in each year, with mean values ranging from 3908 to 7209 kg/ha. A set of 20 experimental genotypes superior to the check based on their high mean yield and stability across environments as assessed by the GGE rank was identified. The most stable high yielding genotypes were HD 2687; Elvia/5/Cndo/R143//Ente/Mexi75/3/AE. sq./4/2*Oci; Quaiu; Whear/Vivitsi//Whear; Kiritati/2*Trch; Waxwing; Munal#1; Whear//Inqalab 91*2/Tukuru and Snb//Cmh79A.955/3*Cno79/3/Attila/4/Chen/A.sq.(Taus)//Bcn/3/2*Kauz. These superior genotypes also had acceptable maturity and plant height. The findings of this study provides information on adaptation of the internationally important wheat genotypes, valuable for wheat improvement program in Afghanistan and its neighbouring countries in West, Central and South Asia.
Guidelines for the assessment of internal doses from monitoring suggest default measurement of uncertainties (i.e. lognormal
scattering factor, SF) to be used for different types of monitoring data. In this paper, SF values have been evaluated for
internal contamination due to 60Co in two cases using whole body counting data. SF values of 1.04 and 1.03 were obtained for case I and II, respectively while
SF value of 1.03 was obtained using bioassay data for case I. SF evaluated is in good agreement with the default values given
by IDEAS guidelines. The present study also presents the follow up study of a case I of 60Co internal contamination using whole body counting and bioassay analysis. The effect of medical intervention applied on the
subject is studied. Medical intervention of d-Penicillamine (250 mg × 4 daily) was orally administered from 13th day of initial exposure for about a fortnight, which showed
reduction of activity present by 33.4% through urine.
Trikatu Churna is an important formulation in Ayurveda — the Traditional System of Indian Medicine. It consists of fine powders of fruits of Piper nigrum L., Piper longum L., and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe in equal proportions. Piperine, present in both P. nigrum and P. longum, is considered to be responsible for the improvement of digestion and bioavailability enhancement of many medicaments. Gingerols and 6-shogaol are key chemical molecules in Z. officinale. Piperlongumine is present in P. longum fruits but absent in the fruits of P. nigrum. We report a validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the determination of piperine, piperlongumine, and 6-shogaol in these herbs and in Trikatu Churna. Piperine, piperlongumine, and 6-shogaol resolved well in n-hexane—ethyl acetate (8:2) on precoated silica gel 60 F254 plates. The absorption maxima for piperine, piperlongumine, and 6-shogaol were found to be 327, 272 and 235 nm, respectively. Linearity for the corresponding markers was observed between 0.1–0.5, 0.2–1.0, and 0.1–1.6 μg spot−1, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 28 and 100, 56 and 200, and 32 and 100 ng for piperine, piperlongumine, and 6-shogaol, respectively. Recovery experiments showed 99.6%, 99.5%, and 99.7% recoveries for piperine, piperlongumine, and 6-shogaol, respectively. P. nigrum fruits from Delhi and Ahmedabad had around 2.0% w/w piperine, while fruits of P. longum from these markets were analyzed for 0.8% and 0.6% w/w piperine. Piperlongumine was not found in both samples of P. nigrum, while the fruits of P. longum had 0.36% and 0.26% w/w piperlongumine. Z. officinale from Delhi had 0.19% w/w of 6-shogaol as against 0.16% w/w found in the sample from Ahmedabad. Plant materials procured from Delhi were employed for the preparation of Trikatu Churna which showed 96.5%, 95%, and 103% w/w of the expected values of piperine, piperlongumine, and 6-shogaol, respectively. The present method is simple, reproducible, and reliable which can be applied for the routine analysis of Trikatu Churna and its ingredients in polyherbal formulations.