Substoichiometric extraction in conjunction with a double tracer technique is employed to simultaneous determination of extraction constants of simple metal pyrrolidinedithiocarbamates and chloride-mixed metal pyrrolidinedithiocarbamates. The metals involved include Hg(II), Bi(III), In(III), As(III), Cd(II) and Fe(II). The extraction constants for Bi(III) and Cd(II) obtained are compared with the values available in the literature. The extraction constants for all the other metals are reported for the first time.
A series of Zn–Al hydrotalcites with Zn/Al molar ratios of 1, 2, 3 and 6 were prepared by co-precipitation method. TG-DTG results showed that the hydrotalcites decompose in two stages, corresponding to the two endothermic peaks around 180 and 220°C. After calcination at 400°C, the samples were converted into Zn–Al mixed oxides with the only XRD pattern of ZnO, except for the sample with the ratio of 6. The Zn–Al mixed oxides possess similar surface acidity revealed by microcalorimetric adsorption of NH3. The basicity of the samples increases with the order: ZnO>6Zn/Al>1Zn/Al>Al2O3.
The gold content of placer gold flakes and gold bearing ores has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis /INAA/ and radiochemical neutron activation analysis /RNAA/. It was discovered that significant errors result in the instrumental method for gold flakes as small as 10 mg due to sample self-absorption of neutrons during irradiation. Reliable results were obtained, for both ore samples and gold flakes, by dissolving the samples in aqua regia prior to irradiation.
The catalytic performance of unsupported and carbon-supported Fe, Mo and Fe−Mo catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is
greatly influenced by the final reduction states of the catalysts. In this investigation, the reduction process of the catalysts
by H2 was studied by using TG-DTG. The reduction process depends not only on the reducibility of metals but also on the nature
of the support. Methanation of the support occurred as soon as the supported metals were completely reduced for the carbon-supported
catalysts. For these, the reduction temperature should by carefully selected so that the metal oxides are reduced as completely
as possible, whilst the methanation of the support must be avoided to obtain optimum reduced catalysts.
Carburization and coke deposition of unsupported and carbon-supported Fe, Mo and Fe−Mo catalysts in syngas have been studied
using thermogravimetry. Compositions of the carbides formed are evaluated on the basis of the amount of metals in the catalysts
and amount of carbon deposited during carburization. It is shown that carburization temperature and the nature of the carbides
formed (Fe5C2 and Fe2C for iron and Mo2C for molybdenum) depend on the metals but are influenced by the support and metal loading. Coke deposition on these catalysts
takes place as soon as carburization is complete.
Rice straw represents a significant energy source for ruminant animals, and fibers and lignin contents of rice straw are negatively related to intake potential of forages. For improvement of the digestibility of rice straw, it is necessary to understand the genetic basis of the related traits. In present study, mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) was carried out using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between
variety Zai-Ye-Qing 8 (ZYQ8) and
variety Jing-Xi 17 (JX17). The results indicated that all three parameters were continuously distributed among the DH lines, but many DH lines showed transgressive segregation for all the three traits. A total of three main-effect QTLs were identified for ADF and ADL, two of which, qADF-9 and qADL-9, shared the same region on chromosome 9. These two main-effect QTLs explained more than 20% of the total phenotypic variations, whereas the other QTL, qADF-5, explained 12.8% of the total phenotypic variation for ADF. In addition, another two epistatic QTLs, qADF-2 and qADF-3 could explain 17.6% of the total variations. Thus, we concluded that both main-effects and epistatic QTLs were important in controlling the genetic basis of ADF.
Authors:H. Zhao, S. Bennici, J. Shen, and A. Auroux
The surface acidic properties of sulfated vanadia–titania catalysts prepared by various methods were investigated by adsorption
microcalorimetry, using ammonia as probe molecule. The acidic characteristics of the samples were shown to be strongly affected
by the preparation method, calcination temperature, and sulfur content. The samples prepared by sol–gel and mechanical grinding
exhibited higher acidity than co-precipitated samples. Moreover, increasing the calcination temperature of co-precipitated
samples resulted in a decrease in surface area from 402 to 57 m2 g−1 and sulfur content from around 4 to 0.2 mass%, but up to a certain point generated a stronger acidity. The optimal calcination
temperature appeared to be around 673 K.
Authors:J. Liu, H. Xu, W. Shen, X. Pan, and Y. Xiang
Mn2O3/-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method, and the maximum monolayer dispersion capacity or dispersion threshold value of Mn2O3 on the surface of -Al2O3 was determined to be 13.08% from the decomposition mass loss of supported Mn(NO3)2 in the monolayer state. This was compared with the values estimated from a close-packed monolayer model and an interaction model. It was confirmed that the high activities and selectivities of the catalysts for benzoic acid hydrogenation to benzaldehyde are due to the monolayer dispersion of the Mn2O3 on the surface of -Al2O3.