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In the Mathematical Geodesy Division of the Geodetic and Geophysical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences research has been done mainly in two areas: theoretical foundation of the evaluation of geodetic measurements and the practical application of theoretical results. These include interpolation methods, robust estimation, time-series analysis. Results of the research have been applied in areas such as photogrammetry, digital terrain model, polar motion, geodynamics.

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In this study we introduce new rock physical models which describe the pressure dependence of seismic velocity and quality factor. The models are based on the idea (accepted in the literature) that microcracks in rocks are opened and closed under the change of pressure. The models were applied to acoustic P wave velocity data measured on core samples originated from oil-drilling wells (27 samples) and also seismic velocity and quality factor data sets published in international literature. During the measurements the pulse transmission and the spectral ratio techniques were used. Measurements were carried out at various incremental pressures and parameters of the models were determined by linearized inversion methods. The calculated data matched accurately with measured data proving that the new rock physical models apply well in practice.

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Sensory neuropathy is common symptom of the diabetes mellitus and the prevalence of oral lesions is higher in diabetic patients. The distribution of substance P was studied immunohistochemically in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat's tongue. The morphological association of sensory nerves (substance P immunoreactive) with mast cells (nerve fibre-mast cell contact) was monitored. The substance P nerve fibre-mast cell contacts were very scanty in control tongue. The number of substance P nerve terminals and mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05) in diabetes mellitus after 4 weeks of the treatment compared with the control tongue. The number of mast cell-nerve contacts was even more significantly increased (p<0.001) in diabetes. The distance between nerve fibres and mast cells was about 1 mm and very often less than 200 nm. In some instances, the mast cells were degranulated in the vicinity to nerve fibres. Increased number of mast cell-nerve contacts in neurogenic inflammation might cause vasoconstriction and lesions of the oral mucosa, so some disorders such lichen planus, leukoplakia and cancer might frequently develop in diabetes mellitus.

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Community Ecology
Authors:
J. Podani
,
Zs.R. Benkő
, and
Z. Somogyi

D. R. Nielsen and O. Wendroth. 2003. Spatial and Temporal Statistics. sampling Field Soil and their Vegetation. Castena Verlag, Reiskirchen, Germany. 416 pages, many illustrations. Paperback. ISBN 3-923381-46-6. Price: 50 EUR. Y. Gutterman. 2002. Survival Strategies of Annual Desert Plants (Adaptations of Desert Organisms). xx + 348 pages. Springer-Verlag, Belin, Heidelberg, New York. Hardcover. ISBN: 3-540-43172-1. Price: 159 EUR. P. S. Johnson, S. R. Shifley and R. Rogers. 2002. The Ecology and Silviculture of Oak. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. 503 pages. Hardback. ISBN 0 85199 570 5. Price: 85 GBP, 149 USD. J. Belnap and O.L. Lange (eds.). 2003. Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function and Management (Ecological Studies, Vol. 150). 1st edition, revised 2nd printing. xviii + 503 pages. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. Softcover. ISBN: 3-540-43757-6. Price: 49.95 EUR.

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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of genotype and type of muscle on the mineral content of beef. Altogether 62 young bulls from Angus, Charolais, Holstein, Hungarian Simmental, Hungarian Grey, and Charolais×Hungarian Grey were used. The calcium content varied between 26–46 mg kg−1, in longissimus muscle of Hungarian Simmental it was significantly higher than for other genotypes except for Angus. Psoas major of Holstein had the highest phosphorus content, it significantly differed from the longissimus of Angus. Longissimus muscle of Angus was the poorest for magnesium, and the richest was the psoas major of Holstein and Hungarian Grey. Charolais had higher level of potassium in psoas major than Angus and Charolais×Hungarian Grey. Sodium content of semitendinosus in Charolais×Hungarian Grey was lower than in Holstein. Present data showed that levels were detected in the longissimus of Angus and semitendinosus of Holstein. Concerning zinc, a higher level was found in longissimus, especially for Holstein. The results confirmed that beef mineral content depends on genotype, and is related to muscle type, too.

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Abstract

Colour is one of the most important phenotypic characters of the table grape cultivars, which has high importance in the consumer's preference. This morphological trait is variable and not consistently uniform within a cultivar or even a bunch. Between harvest and consumption fruits are stored for several weeks which time is influencing the colour of the berry. In this study 10 grapevine accessions (Agaphante, KM98, Korai piros veltelini, Korona, Pinot gris, Pozsonyi, Ros de Minis, Tramini piros, T9, Zenit) were collected from the germplasm collection of the Research Institute for Viticulture and Oenology of the National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre of Kecskemét. The samples were investigated by ColorLite Sph850 spectrophotometer. The colour of 30 berries per accessions were measured in 3 replicates per berry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the colour and the effect of cold storage. L, a, b values of each accessions were evaluated after the sampling and until a visible reduction in the quality of the grapes, at most 4 weeks with 1-week intervals from the harvest. Results showed that there is a significant difference among the cultivars in the L∗, a∗, b∗ values. The length of cold storage also has a significant effect on the colour of the accessions as the values are changing in some cases of the 1-week storage period.

Open access
Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors:
J. Pauk
,
C. Lantos
,
G. Somogyi
,
P. Vági
,
Z. Ábrahám Táborosi
,
A. Gémes Juhász
,
R. Mihály
,
Z. Kristóf
,
N. Somogyi
, and
Z. Tímár

Spice pepper production has a history of almost 300 years in the southern part of Hungary. In this study the results of two biotechnological improvements are summarized. Anther and isolated microspore culture techniques were improved to release haploid and doubled haploid (DH) lines for spice pepper breeding. Both the anther and isolated microspore culture methods were successfully used in spice pepper haploid production. Microspore culture-derived structures were analysed to identify their different parts. Green plantlets were regenerated from embryos derived from both anther and microspore cultures. Their doubled haploid analogues were integrated into Hungarian spice pepper hybrid seed breeding programmes. One hybrid, Sláger, was released as a new genotype for spice pepper production in 2008 and two hybrid candidates (Délibáb and Bolero) are now being tested in official trials.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Mardani
,
L. Somogyi
,
I. Szedljak
,
I. Prauda
,
J. Farmani
, and
K. Badakné Kerti

Abstract

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) with high antioxidant capacity is distributed all over the world, but has never been used as a natural antioxidant in oils to replace synthetic antioxidants. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of sea buckthorn extract in comparison to a common natural antioxidant rosemary extract and a synthetic antioxidant on retarding lipid oxidation. First the extracts were characterised, and it was found that sea buckthorn extract had higher polyphenol contents, radical scavenging activity, and higher antioxidant capacity. Then the proper concentrations for the use of these antioxidants were determined. Additionally, the progress of lipid oxidation during cycles of frying was assessed in terms of free fatty acids content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, colour, total polar compounds, and Induction period. The general order of effectiveness for inhibition of high oleic sunflower oil degradation during frying was: sea buckthorn > BHT > rosemary > control (P <0.05).

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
E. Somogyi
,
Á. Kun
,
J. Lázár
,
P. Bodor-Pesti
, and
D. Á. Nyitrainé Sárdy

Abstract

Quantitative evaluation of the horticultural crops has high importance to identify cultivars, describe the effect of the growing location and cultivation technology or define consumer's preference regarding the size and shape. Fruit traits of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) are mainly described by the bunch and berry morphology notably bunch and berry size, weight and shape. Ampelographers particularly evaluate the berry based on the seed number as it influences size and consumers' decision. In this study, berry morphological traits of the grapevine cultivar ‘Italia’ was investigated based on digital image analysis. Samples were collected from two vineyards in Hungary with different ecological and cultivation circumstances. Altogether 12 traits were investigated: weight, seed number, size and shape attributes. Results showed that berry morphological traits – except from the shape attributes – are not differing between the two sampling locations. In accordance with previous studies, seed number – ranging from 0 to 4 – had noticeable effect on the size attributes.

Open access

Abstract

Grapevine berry shape has important marketing value in the table grape commerce, hence variability evaluation of this characteristic is highly important. In this study berry shape of 5 table grape genotypes: “Fanny”, “Lidi”, “Hamburgi muskotály”, “Moldova”, and “Orsi” were compared. To evaluate the shape variability graphic reconstruction and elliptic Fourier analysis have been carried out. Shape outlines have been investigated and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been performed with the SHAPE software package. PCA of the contours showed that 6 out of the 77 principal components were effective to describe shape attributes. The first 6 PCs explained 94.51% of the total variance. PC1 associated with the width and length of the berry. PC2 related to the shape of the top and bottom of the berries, while PC3 linked to the ratio of the top and the bottom width. ANOVA of the principal component scores revealed significant difference among the genotypes. Results suggest that morphology of the berry is a variable not only among but within the accessions. Our findings confirmed that elliptic Fourier descriptors (EFDs) would be a powerful tool for quantifying grapevine berry morphological diversity.

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