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An electrorefining process in molten chloride salts using solid aluminium cathodes is being developed in Institute for Transuranium Elements in order to separate actinides (An) from spent nuclear fuel. In this process, the fuel including fission products (FP) is dissolved into an electrolyte. Without purification of the salt, the process would have to be stopped when the FP concentration would become too high to allow a selective deposition of An on the cathode. Exhaustive electrolysis is proposed as the first purification step, consisting of a group-selective recovery of An on solid aluminium cathodes. On the anodic side, chlorine gas is produced by electrochemical decomposition of the salt. In order to prove the feasibility of the method, two galvanostatic electrolyses were carried out and the potentials of both electrodes were constantly monitored. Uranium was recovered from LiCl–KCl melts containing UCl3 and a mixture of UCl3–NdCl3, in which its concentration decreased from 1.7 to 0.1 wt% with no co-deposition of neodymium. Although the maximum applicable current densities were relatively low, the results are promising, demonstrating high current efficiency and selectivity of the proposed method. A design and application of a special chlorine gas producing inert anode is also discussed.

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: K. Szalay, B. Keller, R. Rák, N. Péterfalvi, L. Kovács, J. Souček, F. Sillinger, and A. Jung


One of the biggest challenges of raspberry production in Hungary nowadays is reducing the unfavorable effects of climate change. The maturation phase of main varieties within this region falls in a period of extremely high temperature and atmospheric drought detaining desirable fruit growth. Dedicated plant breeding alone is not enough. An immediate action is required. There has been a need for physical protection against excessive direct radiation. In order to restore, or even save the domestic raspberry production and market, introducing of greenhouse or polytunnel solutions are needed. Experimental plantations of three different raspberry varieties were set in two repetitions: covered and uncovered versions. Each cover has characteristic interaction with light which can generate different environmental conditions and also differences in plant growth and fruit quality. Besides the monitoring of elementary biological indicators, a wide range of sensors (temperature, humidity, solar irradiation) was used to identify differences and to find the optimal tunnel material for maximal plant productivity. Within the framework of the project we also tested a portable spectroradiometer and a snapshot imaging camera to study the practical value of proximal sensing in water- and photosynthetic light use efficiency and vitality mapping.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Červinka, P. Burg, I. Soural, V. Mašán, A. Čížková, J. Souček, V. Višacki, O. Ponjičan, and A. Sedlar


Sauvignon Blanc represents an important grape variety. The wine made from this variety is known to have a wide range of aroma profiles from nettles to tropical fruits. Beside the raw material quality (grapes), the quality of wines can be fundamentally influenced by the technological conditions applied in the wine making process. Yeast and other microorganisms play a key role in the formation of metabolites during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, the effects of autochthonous or selected wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fermentation temperatures (15 °C and 19 °C) were tested on major monoterpenes contents of wines during the period 2016–2017. The obtained values show that the highest contents of linalool (24.36 μg L−1) and hotrienol (11.84 μg L−1) were determined in wine samples produced with active (selected) wine yeast at lower temperature. Sensory evaluation results indicated that monoterpenes can have a positive effect on the overall sensory quality of Sauvignon Blanc wines, despite the fact that their determined concentrations in the evaluated samples were not higher than their threshold values.

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