Hungarian agricultural scientists who published new research results in the 1950s generally submitted their manuscripts to Acta Agronomica Hungarica, which also provided a forum for the development of international cooperation. When the journal was established it published original papers, reviews, lectures and short communications on agricultural sciences in English, Russian, German and French. It was edited in Budapest, first by András Somos and later by János Surányi. In 1965 the editorial office was transferred to the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvásár, where Sándor Rajki converted it into an English language journal and also made substantial changes to its structure. From 1983 Acta Agronomica was edited in the University of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest, with István Tamássy and later Pál Kozma as chief editor. After 12 years, in May 1995, the Agricultural Sciences Section of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences again charged the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvásár, with the editing of the journal, and since 2000 Zoltán Bedő has been the chief editor. The editorial board of Acta Agronomica Hungarica still regards the publication of the results achieved in basic and applied research on agricultural science as its primary task, with the emphasis on crop research. Preference is given to research on physiology, genetics, crop production, plant breeding, cell and molecular biology, nature and environment protection, and the preservation of gene reserves. The professional standard, recognition, market value and time to publication have improved considerably in recent years. This can be attributed partly to the setting up of an International Advisory Board in addition to the Hungarian Editorial Committee, and partly to the computerised editing and to the precise, conscientious work of the reviewers.
The genotype by
environment (GE) interaction is a major problem in the study of quantitative
traits because it complicates the interpretation of genetic experiments and
makes predictions difficult. In order to quantify GE interaction effects on the
grain yield of durum wheat and to determine stable genotypes, field experiments
were conducted with ten genotypes for four consecutive years in two different
conditions (irrigated and rainfed) in a completely randomized block design with
three replications in each environment. Combined analysis of variance exhibited
significant differences for the GE interaction, indicating the possibility of
stable entries. The results of additive main effect and multiplicative
interaction (AMMI) analysis revealed that 12% of total variability was
justified by the GE interaction, which was six times more than that of
genotype. Ordination techniques displayed high differences for the interaction
principal components (IPC1, IPC2 and IPC3), indicating that 92.5% of the GE sum
of squares was justified by AMMI1, AMMI2 and AMMI3, i.e. 4.5 times more than
that explained by the linear regression model. The results of the AMMI model
and biplot analysis showed two stable genotypes with high grain yield, due to
general adaptability to both rainfed and irrigated conditions, and one with
Six pure lines of maize were tested in a randomized complete block design with three replications under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Genetic variation was found between the genotypes for yield potential (Yp), stress yield (Ys), tolerance index (TOL), geometric mean productivity (GMP), harmonic mean (HM) and stress tolerance index (STI). Stress tolerance index was corrected using a correction coefficient (ki) and thus a modified stress tolerance index (MSTI) was introduced as the optimal selection criterion for drought-tolerant genotypes. The results of three-D plotting indicated that the most desirable genotype for irrigated and rainfed conditions was the genotype K1515, for non-stressed conditions K18 and for stress conditions K104/3, K760/7 and K126/10.
There is still disagreement among scientists on the exact origin of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum), one of the most important crops in the world. The first step in the development of the hexaploid aestivum group (ABD) may have been hybridisation between T. urartu (A), as pollinator, and a species related to the Sitopsis section of the Aegilops genus (S) as cytoplasm donor, leading to the creation of the tetraploid species T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (AB). The following step may have involved hybridisation between T. turgidum ssp. dicoccon (AB genome, cytoplasm donor), a descendant of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, and Ae. tauschii (D genome, pollinator), resulting in the hexaploid species T. aestivum ssp. spelta (ABD) or some other hulled type. This form may have given rise to naked types, including T. aestivum ssp. aestivum (ABD). The ancestors of the tetraploid T. timopheevii (AG) may have been the diploid T. urartu (A genome, pollinator) and Ae. speltoides (S genome, cytoplasm donor). Species in the timopheevii group developed later than those in the turgidum group, as confirmed by the fact that the G genome is practically identical to the S genome of Ae. speltoides, while the more ancient B genome has undergone divergent evolution. Hybridisation between T. timopheevii (AG, cytoplasm donor) and T. monococcum (A m, pollinator) may have resulted in the species T. zhukovskyi (AGA m). Research into the relationships between the various species is of assistance in compiling the taxonomy of wheat and in avoiding misunderstandings arising from the fact that some species are known by two or more synonymous names.
To study the properties of some drought tolerance criteria and agronomic characters in wheat, an eight-parental diallel cross, excluding reciprocals, was grown in a randomized complete block design with three replications under two different water regimes (irrigated and rainfed) for two years in the College of Agriculture at Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. High broad-sense heritability estimates were observed for harvest index, grain yield, and earliness. Additive gene action was found to be predominant for grain yield, harvest index, relative water content and chlorophyll fluorescence. The results of combining ability analysis revealed that Plainsman was the best general combiner and Plainsman × Kobomugi was the best specific combination for improving drought tolerance. The pooled analysis of variance for combining ability over rainfed conditions reflected that the GCA × environment interaction was not significant for harvest index and chlorophyll fluorescence, and the SCA × environment interaction was non-significant for relative water content and relative water loss, indicating that genes controlling osmoregulation and the other physiological traits mentioned are not affected in these varieties by different rainfed conditions and hence show static stability.
Authors:E. Farshadfar, - Ghanadha, J. Sutka and M. Zahravi
To evaluate the genetic background of quantitative criteria of drought tolerance in wheat, six generations of a cross between the varieties of Plainsman and Cappelle Desprez were grown in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the greenhouse of the College of Agriculture of the University of Tehran in 1997. Genetic variation was found for yield potential (Yp), stressed yield (Ys), excised leaf water retention (ELWR), relative water loss (RWL), relative water content (RWC) and harvest index (HI) under water stress conditions. High heterosis and heterobeltiosis were observed in the F1 hybrid for Ys, HI and spike yield index (SYI). Genetic analysis exhibited overdominance in the inheritance of Ys, RWL, ELWR, HI, biomass and SYI, while RWC and Yp were controlled by the additive type of gene action. High narrow-sense heritability estimates were shown by ELWR, biomass and SYI. The high genetic advance for ELWR, RWC, HI and SYI indicated that direct selection could be effective for these traits. The epistatic effects (additive × additive=[i] for Yp, Ys and RWL, additive × dominance=[j] for ELWR, and dominance × dominance =[l] for RWL) were found to be outstanding.
On areas used for agriculture copper toxicity is one of the most important forms of heavy metal pollution, especially where field crops are to be grown in fields previously used as orchards or vineyards, treated for a long period with pesticides containing copper. Only varieties with good tolerance of soil with a high copper content should be grown on such areas. The selection of copper-tolerant varieties is complicated, however, by the fact that it is difficult to study copper tolerance under field conditions. Heavy metal tolerance is generally tested in hydroponic cultures, in which interfering factors can be minimised, but it is impossible to test a large number of genotypes or segregating generations using this method. Another problem in such experiments is that the conditions existing in hydroponic cultures bear little resemblance to those found in the field, so little information is obtained on the real adaptation of the varieties. The aim of the present experiments was thus to elaborate a soil-based technique suitable for determining the copper tolerance of various genotypes and allowing the simultaneous testing of a large number of genotypes under conditions approaching those found in the field. The results indicate that the copper tolerance of seedlings can be determined by growing them to an age of 2 weeks in soil containing 1000-1500 mg/kg CuSO4 × 5 H2O, since genetic differences in copper tolerance could be clearly distinguished under these conditions. The copper tolerance of plants grown in copper-containing soil exhibited a close correlation with the results obtained in physiological tests in hydroponic culture.
The growing interest in emmer cultivation has no doubt been stimulated by the increasing demand for traditional foods with an image of naturalness, especially on the organic market. The new economic situation could stimulate the breeding and production of emmer as the source of an especially valuable foodstuff. It is the task of breeders to produce emmer varieties that can survive even the hardest winter occurring in the targeted cultivation area without serious damage. The best sources to improve the winter hardiness are probably the emmer genetic resources stored in genebanks. Unfortunately no public data are available on the frost tolerance and winter hardiness of the various genebank accessions. In the present research the frost tolerance and winter hardiness of 10 winter emmer genebank accessions were studied under nursery and phytotronic conditions. The results suggest that the majority of the populations studied are frost-sensitive, and only few landraces have an acceptable level of winter hardiness and frost resistance.
In order to locate QTLs controlling field and laboratory indicators of drought tolerance, chromosome addition lines of Agropyron elongatum (donor) in the genetic background of Chinese Spring (recipient) were tested in the field and laboratory of the College of Agriculture, Razi university, Kermanshah, Iran. The plant genetic material was cultivated in the field and laboratory under two different water regimes (irrigated and non-irrigated). High significant differences were found for promptness index (PI), coleoptile length (CL) and root length (RL) under stress and non-stress conditions, indicating the presence of genetic variation and the possibility of selection for these traits. High correlation coefficients were found between PI, germination stress index (GSI) and stress tolerance index (STI), displaying a high association between the indices of field and laboratory predictors of drought tolerance. Field and laboratory predictors of drought tolerance showed that most of the QTLs controlling drought tolerance criteria in Agropyron are located on chromosomes 3E, 5E and 7E, which collectively constitute 84.3% of the additive genetic variance.
Authors:E. Farshadfar, R. Mohammadi, M. Aghaee and J. Sutka
Water deficiency is a major constraint in wheat production and the most important contributor to yield reduction in the semiarid regions of the world. species related to wheat are valuable genetic sources for different traits including resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. To locate the genes controlling the physiological and agronomic criteria of drought tolerance, disomic addition lines of secale cereale cv. Imperial (donor) into the genetic background of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (recipient) were tested under field, greenhouse and laboratory conditions. Disomic addition lines exhibited significant differences for relative water content (RWC), relative water loss (RWL), water use efficiency (WUE) and stomatal resistance (SR), indicating the presence of genetic variation and the possibility of selection for improving drought tolerance. Three physiological variables, RWL, WUE and SR, with high correlation with the stress tolerance index (STI) and germination stress index (GSI), contributed 69.7% to the variability of yield under stress (Ys) in the regression equation. Based on the physiological multiple selection index (MSI) most of the QTLs controlling physiological indices of drought tolerance were located on chromosomes 3R, 5R and 7R. The contribution of addition line 7R to the MSI was 47%. The evaluation of disomic addition lines for STI and GSI revealed that most of the QTLs involved in these quantitative criteria of drought tolerance are located on 3R and 7R. Cluster analysis and three dimensional plots of Ys, yield potential (Yp) and MSI indicated that 3R and 7R are the most important chromosomes carrying useful genes for improving drought tolerance.