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The Jesuits' Ratio Studiorum ordered to follow St. Thomas's theology. Between 1603--1607, at the University of Graz, Péter Pázmány S.J. gave lectures on St. Thomas's Summa Theologie and commented on its most important issues. St. Thomas thoroughly studied the problem of faith (de Fide) and explained the questions of grace and liberty (de auxiliis) debated by the Jesuits and the Dominicans. He found a fine balance between Banezianism and Molinism through the following main principle: grace intensifies liberty, that is, God does not act on behalf of us but makes us act.

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EU’s Common Agricultural Policy encourages maintaining agricultural production in less favored areas (LFA) to secure both stable production and income to farmers and to protect the environment. Recently the delimitation of LFAs is suggested to be carried out using common biophysical diagnostic criteria on low soil productivity and poor climate conditions all over Europe. The criterion system was elaborated by European Commission’s Joint Research Center (JRC) and its operational implementation comes under member state competence. This process requires the existence of an adequate national spatial soil information system with appropriate data structure and spatial resolution as well as a proper methodology for its analysis. Hungary possesses an appropriate, nationwide, 1:25,000 scale legacy dataset originating from the national soil mapping project, which was digitally processed and developed into the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS). In the paper we present how DKSIS was applied for the identification and delineation of areas in Hungary concerned by the common biophysical criteria related to soil. Soil data linked to soil profiles and SMUs were jointly spatially analyzed for the compilation of nationwide digital maps displaying spatial distribution of specific limiting factors.

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GIS adaptation and digital reambulation of large-scale soil information originating from various agrogeological surveys has become a key issue in Hungary due the recent challenges. The national programme initiated by L. Kreybig for the systematic, 1:25,000 scale practical soil mapping of Hungary was carried out between 1935 and 1951, and provided detailed soil information (1:25,000 scale maps and complementary database in the form of explanatory booklets) for the whole country. Later farm level (1:10,000 scale) soil surveys fulfilled the practical requirements of Hungarian agriculture, producing a huge quantity of map based, soil related data. These archives still represent a valuable treasure of soil information at present. Their digital reambulation and GIS adaptation is a challenging task, which was initiated by RISSAC GIS Lab in co-operation with various institutions. The aim of these activities is the development of large-scale soil modules of a Hungarian production database for the determination of the optimal functions of agriculture in a given region, together with the harmonization of agricultural production and the protection of land and environment.

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Basil has traditionally been used for a long time in medicine and gastronomy. Essential oil is the most important active substance of the drug, which influences the aroma and the effect of the plant. Although the compositions of essential oils vary in different basil cultivars, the main components are oxygenated monoterpenes and phenylpropane derivates. The high chemical variation is most likely caused by interspecific hybridization. Various factors, like genetic background, ontogenesis, morphogenesis, abiotic factors, essential oil extraction method, drying, and storage, are responsible for the variant essential oil composition.

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In Hungary Primula auricula is a relict species of some dolomite areas of the Transdanubian Mountains. This paper reviews the history of the recognition of the known occurrences, and the knowledge about the populations and habitats. The authors demonstrate some problems from the natural protection point of view in connection with uncertainties of an unpublished occurrence (Rezi: Meleg-hegy, Keszthely Mts).

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The herbarium of Paulus Kitaibel (1757–1817) has been preserved in good condition and can still be used for the investigation of problematic questions. There happens to be a misidentified specimen on the back of one of the sheets. Although it has been studied by several botanists, it has proved impossible to identify this species because important morphological traits have been lost due to the age of the preserved material. The complete ITS region of the over 200-year-old herbarium specimen has been amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis and the secondary structure modelling of the ITS2 RNA transcript clearly provided, that the specimen is Solanum scabrum , thus settling the controversy surrounding this question. This result is particularly interesting, as the presence of S. scabrum in the Hungarian flora, has never been officially documented.

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The national soil-mapping project initiated and led by Kreybig was unique being a national, large-scale survey based on field and laboratory soil analysis and in the meantime serving practical purposes. By its completion, in the early 1950s, Hungary was the first country in the world having such detailed soil information for the whole country. The Kreybig maps are still timely, because the temporal changes in the mapped soil characteristics are not significant. The GIS adaptation of information originating from this survey is under construction, but there is more utilizable information originating from this survey, than it was published in the map series and in reports, and what is provided by simply archiving them digitally. Compilation of the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System as a national spatial soil information system involves both its integration within appropriate spatial data infrastructure and updating with efficient field correlation, which make an inherent refinement and upgrading of the system possible. The field-based updating of DKSIS using field GIS technology by the implication of recent data collected at revisited sites makes the comparison of archived and newly surveyed soil state possible. This, in one hand, should be recorded in the database by updating it. On the other hand, trends can be identified in soil characteristics, thus processes can be realized and/or forecasted. Based on the upgraded database we produce soil maps (i) displaying recent state of soils (ii) with increased accuracy and (iii) according to the soil-mapping concept elaborated by Kreybig et al.

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