The Jesuits' Ratio Studiorum ordered to follow St. Thomas's theology. Between 1603--1607, at the University of Graz, Péter Pázmány S.J. gave lectures on St. Thomas's Summa Theologie and commented on its most important issues. St. Thomas thoroughly studied the problem of faith (de Fide) and explained the questions of grace and liberty (de auxiliis) debated by the Jesuits and the Dominicans. He found a fine balance between Banezianism and Molinism through the following main principle: grace intensifies liberty, that is, God does not act on behalf of us but makes us act.
EU’s Common Agricultural Policy encourages maintaining agricultural production in less favored areas (LFA) to secure both stable production and income to farmers and to protect the environment. Recently the delimitation of LFAs is suggested to be carried out using common biophysical diagnostic criteria on low soil productivity and poor climate conditions all over Europe. The criterion system was elaborated by European Commission’s Joint Research Center (JRC) and its operational implementation comes under member state competence. This process requires the existence of an adequate national spatial soil information system with appropriate data structure and spatial resolution as well as a proper methodology for its analysis. Hungary possesses an appropriate, nationwide, 1:25,000 scale legacy dataset originating from the national soil mapping project, which was digitally processed and developed into the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS). In the paper we present how DKSIS was applied for the identification and delineation of areas in Hungary concerned by the common biophysical criteria related to soil. Soil data linked to soil profiles and SMUs were jointly spatially analyzed for the compilation of nationwide digital maps displaying spatial distribution of specific limiting factors.
The method of substoichiometric separation is completed for radioactivity measurements using special nuclear measurement methods
in a way that along with the substoichiometric extraction of a given metal the simultaneous quantitative separation of other
metals can also be effected. Some general relationships have been derived for the substoichiometric multielement separation
of MAm-type metal chelates. Particularly, the primary dithizonates of silver and copper(II) have been studied, and the application
of the method is demonstrated by the separation of silver and copper from cobalt.
The thermal decomposition of [Co(NH3)5CO3]NO3, [Co(NH3)5NO2](NO3)2 and [Co(NH3)5H2O](NO3)3 complexes was studied by simultaneous TG, DTG, DTA (Derivatograph-C), termogastitrimetry, continuous selective water detection, TG-MS, and XRD methods.
GIS adaptation and digital reambulation of large-scale soil information
originating from various agrogeological surveys has become a key issue in
Hungary due the recent challenges. The
national programme initiated by L. Kreybig for the systematic, 1:25,000 scale
practical soil mapping of Hungary was carried out between 1935 and 1951, and
provided detailed soil information (1:25,000 scale maps and complementary
database in the form of explanatory booklets) for the whole country. Later farm
level (1:10,000 scale) soil surveys fulfilled the practical requirements of
Hungarian agriculture, producing a huge quantity of map based, soil related
archives still represent a valuable
treasure of soil information at present. Their digital reambulation and GIS adaptation
is a challenging task, which was initiated by RISSAC GIS Lab in co-operation
with various institutions. The aim of these activities is the development of
large-scale soil modules of a Hungarian production database for the
determination of the optimal functions of agriculture in a given region,
together with the harmonization of agricultural production and the protection
of land and environment.
Bio-availability of radionuclides in soil is influenced by their chemical form and association with different geo-chemical phases. The solid phase speciation of aged90Sr,137Cs,239Pu and241Am in three common agricultural soil types was investigated using separate extractions with seven reagents. Six of these are commonly used to determine radionuclide association with readily exchangeable forms, carbonates, iron and manganese oxides and organic phases. Trimethyl-chlorosilane was also included because of its ability to extract radionuclide-humate complexes from soil. The extract from this part of the study was subsequently subjected to ultra-filtration to determine the association of radionuclides with different molecular size fractions. The results from this speciation study are discussed in terms of availability for plant uptake.
is a relict species of some dolomite areas of the Transdanubian Mountains. This paper reviews the history of the recognition of the known occurrences, and the knowledge about the populations and habitats. The authors demonstrate some problems from the natural protection point of view in connection with uncertainties of an unpublished occurrence (Rezi: Meleg-hegy, Keszthely Mts).
The herbarium of Paulus Kitaibel (1757–1817) has been preserved in good condition and can still be used for the investigation of problematic questions. There happens to be a misidentified specimen on the back of one of the sheets. Although it has been studied by several botanists, it has proved impossible to identify this species because important morphological traits have been lost due to the age of the preserved material. The complete ITS region of the over 200-year-old herbarium specimen has been amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis and the secondary structure modelling of the ITS2 RNA transcript clearly provided, that the specimen is
, thus settling the controversy surrounding this question. This result is particularly interesting, as the presence of
in the Hungarian flora, has never been officially documented.