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Mycotoxin-producing fungi may contaminate agricultural products in the field (preharvest spoilage), during storage (postharvest spoilage), or during processing. Mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds poses serious health hazard to animals and humans. For lowering mycotoxin contamination of feeds and foods, several strategies have been investigated that can be divided into biological, chemical and physical methods. This paper gives an overview of strategies which are promising with regard to lowering the mycotoxin burden of animals and humans.

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125I-labelled 3-iodo- and 3,5-diiodotyrosine were separated by adsorption chromatography using Sephadex LH-20 dextran gel and ethanol-water binary eluent. The effect of the pH on the distribution coefficient vs. ethanol concentration relationship was determined and interpreted.

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51Cr tracer was used to study the evaporation of chromium during excitation. The evaporation rate vs. time relationships and the isotope distribution in the carrier electrodes were investigated using different electrodes /graphite and carbon/ in the arc excitation of the non-conducting material mixed with the appropriate conducting material /graphite or carbon/. The mechanism of the transport was elucidated.

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The paper examines the relationship between the use of specific knowledge and success among the Hungarian grape growers and wine makers. In the recent decade Hungary has been left behind by the world trends representing an increasing share of premium and superpremium wines (which materialize higher knowledge) in export development. According to our survey, the non-appropriate usage and management of knowledge and skills that would be ‘condition sine qua non’ for wine making might be behind that. However, the use and spread of skills is a basic component in explaining the differences among companies, it is not unambiguous in formulating the business success measured by different indicators. At the same time we can conclude that the Hungarian wine enterprises — keeping the idea of generation, as well as its further development, elaboration, and adequate usage within the frame of the company — can achieve market success.

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A lot of problems arise even recently concerning the control of flatness and profile of rolled strip in industrial circumstances. In the course of planning of the cold-rolling technology of geometrically true strip that is exempt of internal deformation stresses — i.e. flatness strip — it is necessary to take into consideration the elastic and thermal deformation of working rolls, the basic sheet-metal forming of rolls, the existing crown of basic material as well as the wearing of the rolls. A measurement method by which the shape of strip can exactly be measured is necessary for performing the control. In the present phase of my research work, a measurement device has been developed by means of which the given problem can be solved for the time being in experimental circumstances.

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The authors investigated the effect of feeding 2% sodium-hydroxide-treated (as-fed basis) or 2% formaldehyde-treated (crude protein basis) wheat to rumen-, duodenal- and ileocaecal-cannulated Holstein steers on rumen fermentation and ruminal and postruminal starch degradation. Feeding 2 kg/day wheat treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or formaldehyde did not affect negatively the main parameters of rumen fermentation, i.e. pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and microbial activity. Fibre degradation in the rumen was significantly improved when NaOH-treated wheat was fed. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that feeding NaOH- and formaldehyde-treated wheat to steers significantly increased the amount of starch that reached the small intestine. The amount of starch that entered the duodenum increased by 57% and 75% when steers were fed NaOH- and formaldehyde-treated wheat compared to the control phase, respectively. This higher quantity of starch was digested and absorbed, which can provide an increased glucose supply to the animals.

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Our knowledge on the presence of mycotoxin producing fungi and mycotoxins in food commodities in the last decade in Hungary has been summarized in this review. Among the mycotoxin producing fungi, detailed data are available for Fusarium species in cereals, and mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species in different food commodities including coffee, raisins and spices. Ochratoxin concentrations above the tolerable limit have mostly been detected in imported products such as peanuts and coffee. Ochratoxin levels close to the tolerable limit have been observed in Hungarian red peppers. Besides, ochratoxin A has also been detected in Hungarian wine, beer and raisins. Aflatoxins are usually detected in considerable quantities only in imported agricultural products in Hungary, while patulin concentrations were usually below the allowable limit in Hungarian apple juice concentrates. In the future, continuous sampling and analysis of foods and feeds are required to ensure consumer safety in Hungary.

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A method for the preconcenration of strontium on loaded and unloaded polyurethane foams is described. Parameters affecting the extraction of metal ion, such as pH, reagent concentration and background medium have been investigated. The method can be applied to preconcentrate strontium from aqueous samples.

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With flexible (variable) retirement every individual determines his optimal retirement age, depending on a common benefit-retirement age schedule and his life expectancy. The government maximises the average expected lifetime utility minus a scalar multiple of the variance of the lifetime pension balances to achieve harmony between the maximisation of welfare and the minimisation of redistribution. Since the government cannot identify types by life expectancy, it must take the individual incentive compatibility constraints into account. Second-best schedules strongly reduce the variances of benefits and of retirement ages of the so-called actuarially fair system, thus achieving higher social welfare and lower redistribution.

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