The paper examines the relationship between the use of specific knowledge and success among the Hungarian grape growers and wine makers. In the recent decade Hungary has been left behind by the world trends representing an increasing share of premium and superpremium wines (which materialize higher knowledge) in export development. According to our survey, the non-appropriate usage and management of knowledge and skills that would be ‘condition sine qua non’ for wine making might be behind that. However, the use and spread of skills is a basic component in explaining the differences among companies, it is not unambiguous in formulating the business success measured by different indicators. At the same time we can conclude that the Hungarian wine enterprises — keeping the idea of generation, as well as its further development, elaboration, and adequate usage within the frame of the company — can achieve market success.
This study investigated the day-to-day variability of daily physical activity and its effect on sleep and mood in a longitudinal within-subjects study for 7 days and 6 nights.
Materials and methods
Healthy office employees aged 25–35 years with a sedentary lifestyle participated in the study. Seven-day sleep diaries were used to evaluate sleep patterns. Ten-point scales were used to measure the level of happiness and stress. Daily physical activity was measured in steps/day using pedometers. Two hundred forty-five steps/day scores and changes induced in sleep and mood were analysed.
There is a relationship between daily physical activity and sleep/mood. An inverted U-shaped relationship may be assumed between sleep duration, sleep quality, feelings after waking up, and the number of steps/day. Increasing the number of steps/day decreases the level of stress and daytime sleepiness and increases sleep efficiency. Sleep efficiency/daytime sleepiness and sleep duration did not show any association.
Based on the results, after a physically exhausting day, decreased stress and improved sleep efficiency may be experienced, while sleep duration may decrease, which may reduce the participants’ motivation to develop an active lifestyle. For further studies, it would be crucial to use individual exercise intervention programmes to reinforce the positive effects of exercise on sleep and/or mood.
Based on the method of SAMSAHL a programmed, semi-automated processing system has been developed and tested for the neutron
activation analysis of the following elements: As, Se, Sb, Br, Sn and Te. The main characteristics of the procedure are the
following: wet ashing of the sample (by means of digestion in a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide),
bromination, and chlorination. The procedure is controlled via the appropriate dosage of the reagents and a carefully managed
thermal balance. The chemical yield and its reproducibility were determined by tracer techniques using exactly the same parameters
as for the active runs. According to the results the method can be used for the routine determination of the given elements
We have been working on mercury collection from flue gas by amalgamation and subsequent XRF analysis. Previous results showed unexpectedly high relative standard deviation (30%) in collection efficiency when silver-coated filters were exposed to gas phase mercury in a pilot-scale test chamber. Filters were analyzed by micro-XRF, TXRF and conventional XRF to explore the source of scattering. It was concluded that mercury had inhomogeneously adsorbed in the filter as the cause of this variation, leading to a positive bias of 50% in efficiency value. Results reported in this paper suggest the TXRF method is accurate to within ±10% when X-ray counting statistics are not the limiting factor. Application of this filter in flue gas measurement will be presented.
Authors:Á. Klein, Margit Kulcsár, Virág Krízsik, R. Mátics, P. Rudas, J. Török and Gy. Huszenicza
The basic patterns of thyroid hormones [thyroxine (T4) and 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3)] and the T4 and T3 responses induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) are reported in captive female barn owls (Tyto alba) during the non-breeding period. The main findings of the study, conducted on a total of 10 owls, are as follow: (1) The thyroid gland of barn owl can be stimulated by the classical TRH stimulation test. (2) T3 response was much more pronounced both under cold (around 10°C) and warm (around 20°C) conditions, whereas T4 response ranged so widely that we could not point out any significant change in it. (3) Basal T3 plasma level was significantly (p = 0.036) higher in birds exposed to cold temperature, and they responded to TRH treatment with a lower plasma T3 elevation than the birds kept in a warm chamber. This pattern, however, cannot be explained by increased food intake, but is in agreement with the fact that enhanced T3 level may account for higher avUCP mRNA expression, which results in higher heat production on the cell level. From the results it is concluded that altering T3 plasma level plays a significant role in cold-induced thermoregulation.
Authors:B. Tóth, O. Török, É. Kótai, M. Varga, É. Toldiné Tóth, X. Pálfi, E. Háfra, J. Varga, J. Téren and Á. Mesterházy
Aspergillus and Penicillium species and their mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins and patulin, are frequently encountered on cereal products. The occurrence of these species and their mycotoxins on maize was investigated in Hungary after harvest in two consecutive years. Surface-sterilized cereal seeds were placed on selective media, and the isolated fungal strains were identified using morphological methods. In 2010 and 2011, 81.94% and 14.33%, respectively, of the samples were found to be contaminated with potentially toxigenic isolates. The species identification of selected isolates was carried out using sequence-based methods. Several Aspergillus flavus isolates were identified, which are potential aflatoxin producers. Other mycotoxinproducing species were also isolated, including black Aspergilli, which potentially produce ochratoxins and fumonisins, and A. clavatus, which produces patulin. In 2010 a large number of Penicillium species occurred in the samples, producing a wide range of mycotoxins. The mycotoxin content of the samples was analysed using the ELISA and HPLC techniques. Aflatoxins were not detected in any of the samples, while ochratoxins and fumonisins were successfully identified in some of the maize seeds.
Authors:P. Török, T. Miglécz, O. Valkó, K. Tóth, A. Kelemen, Á.-J. Albert, G. Matus, A. Molnár V, E. Ruprecht, L. Papp, B. Deák, O. Horváth, A. Takács, B. Hüse and B. Tóthmérész
In the present paper we report original thousand-seed weight data for the flora of the Pannonian Basin. Our goal was to demonstrate the usefulness of seed weight databases by analysing seed weight data in relation to social behaviour types and life forms. We specifically asked the following questions: (i) how the seed weights are related to social behaviour type categories; (ii) how the life form of the species influences seed weight differences between respective social behaviour types? Own weight measurements are provided for 1,405 taxa; and for 187 taxa we published seed weight data for the first time: these were mostly endemics, orchids and/or species with Pontic, Caspian or continental distribution. Several taxonomic or functional groups are underrepresented in our database, like aquatic plants, rare arable weeds and sub-Mediterranean species. Problematic taxa, some difficult-to-harvest species or species with low seed production and cultivated adventives are also underrepresented. We found that the plant strategies expressed by social behaviour types were significantly different in terms of seed weights. The lowest seed weight scores were found for natural pioneers, whereas the highest ones were found for adventives and introduced cultivated plants. Short-lived herbaceous species had significantly higher seed weight scores than herbaceous perennials. No significant differences were found between specialists and generalists within the stress tolerant group. We found that short-lived graminoids possess heavier seeds than perennial graminoids, perennial and annual forbs. Naturalness scores were negatively correlated with seed weights. Our findings showed that seed collections and databases are not only for storing plant material and seed weight data, but can be effectively used for understanding ecological trends and testing plant trait-based hypotheses. Even the identified gaps underline the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.
Authors:Zs. Sári, T. Kovács, T. Csonka, M. Török, É. Sebő, J. Toth, D. Tóth, E. Mikó, B. Kiss, D. Szeőcs, K. Uray, Zs. Karányi, I. Kovács, G. Méhes, P. Árkosy and P. Bai
Breast cancer is characterized by oncobiosis, the abnormal composition of the microbiome in neoplastic diseases. The biosynthetic capacity of the oncobiotic flora in breast cancer is suppressed, as suggested by metagenomic studies. The microbiome synthesizes a set of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites that are downregulated in breast cancer, including cadaverine, a microbiome metabolite with cytostatic properties. We set out to assess how the protein expression of constitutive lysine decarboxylase (LdcC), a key enzyme for cadaverine production, changes in the feces of human breast cancer patients (n = 35). We found that the fecal expression of Escherichia coli LdcC is downregulated in lobular cases as compared to invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) cases. Lobular breast carcinoma is characterized by low or absent expression of E-cadherin. Fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression is downregulated in E-cadherin negative breast cancer cases as compared to positive ones. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of LdcC expression in lobular and NST cases revealed that fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression might have predictive values. These data suggest that the oncobiotic transformation of the microbiome indeed leads to the downregulation of the production of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites. In E-cadherin negative lobular carcinoma that has a higher potential for metastasis formation, the protein levels of enzymes producing antimetastatic metabolites are downregulated. This finding represents a new route that renders lobular cases permissive for metastasis formation. Furthermore, our findings underline the role of oncobiosis in regulating metastasis formation in breast cancer.
Authors:K. Török, K. Szilágyi, K. Halász, V. Zsigmond, G. Kósa, T. Rédei, E. Peti, J. Schellenberger, Z. Tóth and K. Szitár
Seed bank collections have multiple benefits: store genetic material for conservation and research, and their data can also provide valuable scientific information. The Pannon Seed Bank was established during an EU LIFE+ project between 2010 and 2014 with the target to collect and store seeds of approx. 50% of the wild native vascular flora of the Pannonian Biogeographic Region, seed accessions of at least 800 storable species. This task was fully achieved by the end of the project, as altogether 1,853 seed accessions of 910 species are stored. The aim of the present paper is to provide access to the collection data and metadata of the Pannon Seed Bank as it was completed by the end of the project. The collection campaign involved about 40 experts and covered the whole country. Collection and storing applied standard methodology, based on the ENSCONET project. The collection data published in this paper can be used manifold. Geographical data on species occurrences are major input for nature conservation and research. Seed collection date is valuable for ecological studies of phytophagous insects, frugivorous birds and mammals, etc. The database can be partner to international databases (like GBIF) or research infrastructures (e.g. LifeWatch). Hopefully, this data paper will contribute to further motivate the development of native seed collections and their use for conservation and research in Hungary.
Authors:P. Török, E. Tóth, K. Tóth, O. Valkó, B. Deák, B. Kelbert, P. Bálint, Sz. Radócz, A. Kelemen, J. Sonkoly, T. Miglécz, G. Matus, A. Takács, V. A. Molnár, K. Süveges, L. Papp, L. Papp Jr., Z. Tóth, B. Baktay, G. Málnási Csizmadia, I. Oláh, E. Peti, J. Schellenberger, O. Szalkovszki, R. Kiss and B. TÓthmérész
For understanding local and regional seed dispersal and plant establishment processes and for considering the ecotypes and other forms of specific variability, hard data of locally or regionally measured traits are necessary. We provided newly measured seed weight data of 193 taxa, out of which 24 taxa had not been represented in the SID, LEDA or BiolFlor databases. Our new measurements and formerly published data of locally collected seed weight records together covers over 70% of the Pannonian flora. However, there is still a considerable lack in seed weight data of taxonomically problematic genera, even though they are represented in the Pannonian flora with a relatively high number of species and/or subspecies (e.g. Sorbus, Rosa, Rubus, Crataegus and Hieracium). Our regional database contains very sporadic data on aquatic plants (including also numerous invasive species reported from Hungary and neighbouring countries) and some rare weeds distributed in the southwestern part of the country. These facts indicate the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.