Postnatal development of the cerebellum lasts for weeks in rodents and can be disturbed by systemic 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) administration. This thymidine analogue incorporates into the DNA of proliferating cells, and results in more or less serious damage or death of granule cells, the most actively dividing neuronal population in the developing cerebellar cortex. Further consequences of postnatal BrdU administration are the interrupted postnatal migration and integration as well as partial loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. In the present study, C57Bl6 mice were administered with 50 μg/g body weight BrdU, one sc. injection daily, between P0 and P11 postnatal days, respectively. Large “cavities” appeared in the cytoplasm of a subpopulation of Purkinje cells by P7 in about one-third of administered animals, their number were high at P9 and P11, especially in vermal lobules VIII, IX, and X. By P13 and P15 the number and size of the cavities (and PCs exhibiting unusual morphology) decreased. EM studies revealed that the unusual Purkinje cells received numerous axonal inputs of unknown origin, first of all on their somatic and dendritic spines. The transitory appearance of a subpopulation of Purkinje cells possessing unusual morphology refers to the influence of other (neuronal, glial, or both) cells on their regular differentiation.
This study investigated the day-to-day variability of daily physical activity and its effect on sleep and mood in a longitudinal within-subjects study for 7 days and 6 nights.
Materials and methods
Healthy office employees aged 25–35 years with a sedentary lifestyle participated in the study. Seven-day sleep diaries were used to evaluate sleep patterns. Ten-point scales were used to measure the level of happiness and stress. Daily physical activity was measured in steps/day using pedometers. Two hundred forty-five steps/day scores and changes induced in sleep and mood were analysed.
There is a relationship between daily physical activity and sleep/mood. An inverted U-shaped relationship may be assumed between sleep duration, sleep quality, feelings after waking up, and the number of steps/day. Increasing the number of steps/day decreases the level of stress and daytime sleepiness and increases sleep efficiency. Sleep efficiency/daytime sleepiness and sleep duration did not show any association.
Based on the results, after a physically exhausting day, decreased stress and improved sleep efficiency may be experienced, while sleep duration may decrease, which may reduce the participants’ motivation to develop an active lifestyle. For further studies, it would be crucial to use individual exercise intervention programmes to reinforce the positive effects of exercise on sleep and/or mood.
Organotypic cerebellar cultures from 8-days-old (P8) mouse pups were studied following 11 days of in vitro (11DIV) culturing. The cerebellar cytoarchitectonic structure was maintained in most parasagittal cerebellar cortical slice cultures (also containing the deep cerebellar nuclei). The two main extrinsic excitatory inputs (the climbing and the mossy fibers) seem to be replaced by other axonal types: in the molecular layer mostly by parallel fibers (for climbing fibers) and in the granular layer by intrinsic mossy fiber collaterals of local excitatory interneurons, the unipolar brush cells. However, in a few organotypic cultures, which (although preserving the trilaminar cerebellar cortical structure) were “granuloprival” but also contained some of the deep cerebellar nuclei, the participation of extracortical axons from the deep cerebellar nuclei in the replacement of the missing afferents is suggested.
The number of neurons, both GABA immunopositive and immunonegative, was determined in temporal epileptic foci of 7 patients after temporal lobectomy, and compared to neuronal numbers in temporal cortex of two controls taken from tumor operated patients. The thickness of the cortex of the epileptic cortex diminished by about 10%, while the number of nerve cells decreased to 67% of that of the control value: it was 19.000/mm3 vs. 28.000/mm3 found in the control. This decline was due to cell degeneration, which, however, was more severe for non-GABAergic nerve cells. Accordingly, the proportion of the GABA-positive neurons in the othervise diminished neuronal population increased to 36.4% from the 32% control value. The number of GABAergic terminals, however, decreased even further, explaining the resulting disinhibition during epileptic seizures.
In this review results are summarized
regarding the effect of virus infection on the physiological processes of
weeds. Through several host-virus model relations the biomass and
seed production, seed viability and germination, nutrient uptake,
drought-resistance and photosynthetic pigment content of healthy and virus
infected plants were compared. Because of their broad host range and high
genetic variability viruses cannot be used for biological weed control. It was
concluded that viruses unfavourably can influence physiological processes of
weeds. Therefore, they may contribute indirectly to the reduction of
competitive ability and population of weeds.
Investigation of lipid peroxidation as a method of quality control in the food industry requires a simple, fast and reproducible method. The preliminary results about an intensive test are presented. Interaction of oil samples and air is intensified by using a piece of filter paper fitting exactly into the bottom of a laboratory vessel as a support. At elevated temperatures (50–55 °C) generated by infrared light the rate of lipid peroxidation is much increased. The test can be carried out in a one-pot-system. The use of this intensive test is advantageous in studying of the effect of metal salts on lipid peroxidation. It is suggested that this intensive test can be made suitable for the study of different effects and for screening chemical agents, especially that of new antioxidants.
The aim of our study was to investigate the susceptibility of some Chenopodium species (Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, C. berlandieri, C. ugandae) to six viruses (Alfalfa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Obuda pepper virus, Potato virus Y, Sowbane mosaic virus, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus). Fourteen plants of each species were mechanically inoculated and virus susceptibility was evaluated on the basis of symptoms and back inoculation. A series of new host-virus relations were determined.
Authors:J. Takács, Roberta Zaninetti, Julianna Víg, Cs. Vastagh, and J. Hámori
We have investigated the expression of Doublecortin (Dcx) protein in the developing cerebellum of mouse from postnatal 2nd day to postnatal 22nd day and in young adults by immunohistochemistry. Strong expression of Dcx was present in the inner zone of the external granule cell layer, and remained strong while postmitotic granule cell precursors were present in this transitory layer. Descending granule cell precursors exhibited Dcx immunostaining not only while migrating but for a short time also after their settlement. Dcx-immunostained cells appeared in deep cerebellocortical territories and in the cerebellar white matter during the first postnatal week. These bipolar cells were arranged in the sagittal plane and built up transitory migratory streams during the second postnatal week and their number gradually decreased during the third postnatal week. Upward migration of bipolar cells was observed while leaving the migratory streams, penetrating the internal granule cell layer and the molecular layer. These cells were considered as precursors of late migrating molecular layer interneurons. However, a proportion of Dcx-immunostained cells underwent a bipolar-to-multipolar dendritic remodellation and — on the basis of strong morphological similarities — was taken for “multipotent progenitor cells”, described recently in the neocortex of adult rat.
Authors:A. P. Takács, G. Kazinczi, J. Horváth, and R. Gáborjányi
Susceptibility of 33 Lycopersicon
species and intra-specific taxa to 6 viruses such as U/246 strain of Cucumber
mosaic virus (CMV), Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), Potato virus X (PVX), NTN
strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Tomato mosaic
virus (ToMV) were studied. Inoculated plants were tested for susceptibility on
the basis of symptoms, serological reactions (DAS-ELISA) and back inoculation.
All tested plants were susceptible to PepMV, PVX, TMV and ToMV. However,
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. convar. parvibaccatum Lehm. var. cerasiforme
(Dun.) Alef.s.l., L. peruvianum (L.) Mill. and L. hirsutum Humb. et Bonpl. were
extreme resistant (immune) to PVYNTN. L. esculentum Mill. convar. infiniens
Lehm. var. flammatum Lehm., L. esculentum Mill. convar. fruticosum Lehm. var.
speciosum Lehm. and L. esculentum Mill. convar. infiniens Lehm. var. validum
Bail. showed extreme resistance to CMV-U/246. The other 30 species and
intra-specific taxa were susceptible to CMV-U/246. New compatible and
incompatible host-virus relations have been reported.
The extreme resistant Lycopersicon intra-specific taxa could be used as
resistance sources in tomato breeding.