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Abstract  

A radiological survey and whole body counting of 137Cs were carried out in Rongelap Island (main island) of Rongelap Atoll in July 1999. The maximum values of 137Cs contamination and of g-ray dose rate were 39 kBq/m2 and 0.033 mSv/h, respectively. The maximum a and b gross counting rates on the surface of ground were 1 cpm and 182 cpm in active area of 72 cm2, respectively. Activity of 239,240Pu for soil was 80 Bq/kg in the top 5 cm and aerial deposition was 3.4 kBq/m2 in Rongelap Island in 1999. The body burden of 137Cs was observed to be 27±11 Bq/kg for 6 workers. Assessment of external and internal annual doses (0.1 and 0.07 mSv/y) indicates that as of 1999 there is no large risk to the inhabitants of Rongelap Island from a radiological point of view. The radiological status of Rongelap Island, which was severely contaminated by the radiological fallouts of nuclear testings carried out in 1954, has improved year by year as shown by the decrease of 137Cs. The effective halftime of 137Cs, which is estimated to be 6.6 y is much shorter than the physical half-life of 137Cs. Radioactive contamination in Kaballe Island, (a part of the northern islands used for farming) which is located 25 km northeast of Rongelap Island, was still high in 1999. One site nearby a beach was highly contaminated with 137Cs, where the maximum activity of 137Cs was 3.4 MBq/m2, a-ray of 2 cpm, b-ray of 1205 cpm and g-ray of 0.73 mSv/h. Activity of 239,240Pu in soil (n = 1) was 294 Bq/kg (top 5 cm) and 16 kBq/m2.

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Precise determination of rare earth elements in rocks by neutron activation analysis

A pre-irradiation group separation method and a problem concerning granitic rock analysis

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Y. Terakado, T. Fujitani, and J. Takada

Abstract  

A pre-irradiation group separation method has been developed for the neutron activation analysis of rare earth elements (REE) and Ba in silicate rocks. REE and Ba were quantitatively separated from other elements by cation exchange column method. The chemical yield of each separation was monitored with Pr added to the sample powder before decomposition. The accuracy and precision were tested by repeated analyses of JB-1 and one analysis of BCR-1. In addition, it was found that REE distribution in a granitic rock powder was inhomogeneous and therefore special care must be taken for the sampling of granitic rock powders.

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Abstract  

A simple method has been developed for evaluating the neutron spectrum and the temperature by using U, Sb, Cr, Co and Lu as monitors and successfully applied to the routine analysis. For most of nuclides, amounts determined by the method showed reasonable agreements with those added. However, there have been found several nuclides which gave erroneous results beyond the permissible limits. In the case of128I, the reason for the deviation was found to lie on the normalization factor of -ray abundances that are in common use. This was confirmed by using I2 doped polyacethylene which is a material highly resistant to ionizing radiations.46Sc,175Yb and several other rare earth nuclides are discussed as well.

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Abstract  

The lanthanides (REEs) in 142 fern leaves collected from 9 sampling sites in Japan were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Between two REEs a strong positive correlation was found in the logarithmic scattering diagram with correlation and regression coefficients close to unity, suggesting neither selective accumulation by plants nor different availability from soil between the two elements. However, between Tb and the other REEs the relationship showed two lines with the same correlation coefficient. This suggested that there must be a difference in the availability of REEs or in their absorption characteristics by plants. Further analysis revealed that the splitting was due to some difference in the environmental factors where the fern grew. However, the amount of REE in the soil collected together with the corresponding fern did not reflect the REE concentration in the fern leaves.

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Abstract  

Losses of trace elements in plant samples after dry ashing were investigated. Plant samples were heated in crucibles at 105–600°C for 0.5–24 hours in a muffle furnace. The amounts of elements remaining after heating were determined by INAA. The amounts of Cl and Br decreased over the range 200–400°C in all samples, especially in stem samples. The amount of Na increased over the range 450–600°C, possibly because of contamination from the crucibles. Dry ashing is suitable for analyzing most elements in plant samples.

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Abstract  

Water, plant and soil samples from forested area were analyzed in order to study the behavior of radionuclides in the forest ecosystem. The concentration of 137Cs in the soil decreased with depth, while stable Cs and 40K were almost constant. It is suggested that most of the 137Cs once entered in the forest ecosystem is trapped in the upper part of the soil.

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Abstract  

The literature indicates that the interaction of Tb3+ with DNA modified by the antitumour drug cis-diaminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) results in substantial enhancement of the fluorescence of this cation, while no enhancement is observed in the case of DNA modified by irradiation with ionizing radiation. This study investigates the effect of Tb3+ on the survival of cultured mammalian cells treated with CDDP. HeLa cells were treated with a combination of195mPt-CDDP and TbCl3, and the relationship between lethal effect and the numbers of Tb and/or Pt atoms binding to DNA, RNA and proteins was examined. The Tb content in each fraction was determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was found that the cytotoxic effect of CDDP was greatly enhanced by the presence of Tb ions (D0 of CDDP fell from 8.3 μM without Tb to 3.2 μM with 0.75 mM Tb), while no such effect was found in radiation-induced cell-killing. The number of Tb atoms bound to DNA molecules in a cell was calculated to be about 4.5·107, namely 1 per 1.400 nucleotides, under that situation.

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Abstract  

The effect of hyperthermia on the cell killing efficiency of Pt atoms binding to DNA, RNA and protein molecules of HeLa cells treated withcis-diamine(1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylato)platinum(II) (CBDCA) was examined. HeLa S-3 cells were treated with195mPt-radiolabeled CBDCA for 60 minutes at various temperatures, and the relationship between the lethal effect and the number of Pt atoms binding to DNA, RNA and proteins was examined. The mean lethal concentration (D0) of carboplatin for a 60 min-treatment at 0, 25, 37, 40, 42 and 44°C was 671.2, 201.5, 67.3, 33.4, 20.2 and 15.6 μM, respectively. By using identically treated cells, the number of Pt-atoms combined with DNA, RNA and protein molecules were determined in the subcellular fractions. Thus, the D0's given as the drug concentrations were replaced with the number of Pt-atoms combined in each fraction. Then, the cell-killing efficiency of the Pt atom was expressed as the reciprocal of the number of Pt-atoms combined and was calculated for each molecule. The efficiency for DNA molecules was 0.699, 1.42, 2.65, 4.84, 7.74 and 8.28·104 nucleotides, respectively, for the conditions described above. From 0 to 44°C, the cell-killing efficiency of Pt atoms increased by a factor of 11.9.

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Abstract  

We have investigated the concentrations of REEs in fern leaves collected indifferently to the fern species from 9 sampling sites in Japan using INAA. The results indicated a large variation in the values obtained between fern leaves. In the present investigation we applied the same analytical method on the samples (Blechnaceae, a kind of fern, mature and developing leaves were collected from the same plant) restrictively gathered from the University Forests in Ashiu, Kyoto University. It was demonstrated that the variations in the REE concentrations decreased by one to two order of magnitude, and that the REE contents in developing leaves were also one to two orders of magnitude lower than those in mature leaves. It can be considered that fern accumulates REEs with their growth stages.

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Abstract  

Mn, Zn and Al concentrations of ume, sakura and sugi stems determined by ICP-MS using a simple pretreatment were compared with those determined by INAA. We obtained a considerably good agreement between the two methods. ICP-MS using simple pretreatment was found to be useful in analyzing the elements in tree stems.

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