Mycotoxin-producing fungi may contaminate agricultural products in the field (preharvest spoilage), during storage (postharvest spoilage), or during processing. Mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds poses serious health hazard to animals and humans. For lowering mycotoxin contamination of feeds and foods, several strategies have been investigated that can be divided into biological, chemical and physical methods. This paper gives an overview of strategies which are promising with regard to lowering the mycotoxin burden of animals and humans.
The paper examines the relationship between the use of specific knowledge and success among the Hungarian grape growers and wine makers. In the recent decade Hungary has been left behind by the world trends representing an increasing share of premium and superpremium wines (which materialize higher knowledge) in export development. According to our survey, the non-appropriate usage and management of knowledge and skills that would be ‘condition sine qua non’ for wine making might be behind that. However, the use and spread of skills is a basic component in explaining the differences among companies, it is not unambiguous in formulating the business success measured by different indicators. At the same time we can conclude that the Hungarian wine enterprises — keeping the idea of generation, as well as its further development, elaboration, and adequate usage within the frame of the company — can achieve market success.
51Cr tracer was used to study the evaporation of chromium during excitation. The evaporation rate vs. time relationships and the isotope distribution in the carrier electrodes were investigated using different electrodes /graphite and carbon/ in the arc excitation of the non-conducting material mixed with the appropriate conducting material /graphite or carbon/. The mechanism of the transport was elucidated.
125I-labelled 3-iodo- and 3,5-diiodotyrosine were separated by adsorption chromatography using Sephadex LH-20 dextran gel and ethanol-water binary eluent. The effect of the pH on the distribution coefficient vs. ethanol concentration relationship was determined and interpreted.
A lot of problems arise even recently concerning the control of flatness and profile of rolled strip in industrial circumstances. In the course of planning of the cold-rolling technology of geometrically true strip that is exempt of internal deformation stresses — i.e. flatness strip — it is necessary to take into consideration the elastic and thermal deformation of working rolls, the basic sheet-metal forming of rolls, the existing crown of basic material as well as the wearing of the rolls. A measurement method by which the shape of strip can exactly be measured is necessary for performing the control. In the present phase of my research work, a measurement device has been developed by means of which the given problem can be solved for the time being in experimental circumstances.
Interaction between FeEDTA and calcareous soils was followed over a period of four weeks using a radiotracer technique, and a kinetic evaluation of the results was performed.59Fe served to determine the quantity of iron,14C to assay for EDTA and45Ca to measure calcium. During the experiment, i. e. within four weeks in case of the chernozem soil 61% and in case of the clayey meadow soil 51% of the iron chelate dissapeared from the solution. The loss in soluble iron was partly due to a rapid sorption process of about an hour and partly due to the slow decomposition of FeEDTA to Fe(OH)3. The two processes could be separated using the Christiansen equation.
Interaction between iron(III)-diphosphate and iron(III)-triphosphate and Ca-form of a clayey meadow soil was followed over a period of three days using radiotracer technique and kinetic evaluation of the results performed.59Fe served to determine the quantity of iron,45Ca to measure the calcium, and phosphorus was measured spectrophotometrically. Approximately 80% of both iron chelates disappeared from the solution during the time of the experiment as a result of two well distinguishable reactions. One of them is a rapid interfacial process of about 10 minutes and the other is a slow reaction leading to the decomposition of iron(III)-polyphosphate chelates. The two processes could be separated using the Christiansen equation.
The characteristics of crystallization, melting and spherulitic growth of a random propylene copolymer (PRC) containing small amount of ethylene were studied in the presence of a selective Β-nucleating agent (calcium pimelate). It was established that the products of isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization are very rich in Β-modification but have mixed polymorphic composition. The formation of α-modification may be attributed to Βα-transition on the surface of growing Β-spherulites resulting in αΒ-twin-spherulites. During melting of PRC of Β-modification, the characteristics observed with Β-nucleated propylene homopolymers, namely, a Βα-recrystallization of recooled samples and separated melting of non-recooled samples (i.e. the melting memory effect), as well as a ΒΒ-recrystallization leading to a perfection of the structure within the Β-modification, are also demonstrated. The disturbance of regularity of the polymer chain highly reduces the tendency to Β-crystallization. In contrast to the observations with propylene homopolymers, the growth rate of α-modification (Gα) is higher than that of Β-modification (Gβ) and no critical crossover temperature can be found (T(Βα)=413 K) below whichGα>Gβ. The experimental results show that a partial disturbance of chain regularity by incorporation of comonomer units considerably reduces the tendency to Β-crystallization.
The authors investigated the effect of feeding 2% sodium-hydroxide-treated (as-fed basis) or 2% formaldehyde-treated (crude protein basis) wheat to rumen-, duodenal- and ileocaecal-cannulated Holstein steers on rumen fermentation and ruminal and postruminal starch degradation. Feeding 2 kg/day wheat treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or formaldehyde did not affect negatively the main parameters of rumen fermentation, i.e. pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and microbial activity. Fibre degradation in the rumen was significantly improved when NaOH-treated wheat was fed. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that feeding NaOH- and formaldehyde-treated wheat to steers significantly increased the amount of starch that reached the small intestine. The amount of starch that entered the duodenum increased by 57% and 75% when steers were fed NaOH- and formaldehyde-treated wheat compared to the control phase, respectively. This higher quantity of starch was digested and absorbed, which can provide an increased glucose supply to the animals.
Our knowledge on the presence of mycotoxin producing fungi and mycotoxins in food commodities in the last decade in Hungary has been summarized in this review. Among the mycotoxin producing fungi, detailed data are available for Fusarium species in cereals, and mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species in different food commodities including coffee, raisins and spices. Ochratoxin concentrations above the tolerable limit have mostly been detected in imported products such as peanuts and coffee. Ochratoxin levels close to the tolerable limit have been observed in Hungarian red peppers. Besides, ochratoxin A has also been detected in Hungarian wine, beer and raisins. Aflatoxins are usually detected in considerable quantities only in imported agricultural products in Hungary, while patulin concentrations were usually below the allowable limit in Hungarian apple juice concentrates. In the future, continuous sampling and analysis of foods and feeds are required to ensure consumer safety in Hungary.