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W Schröder ed.: The Einstein Century of Physics - The First Quarter (Collected papers by Hans-Jürgen Treder), Beitr. Gesch. Physik u. kosm. Physik, Science Ed., Bremen, Vol.\ 5, 2001, 52 pp; W Schröder ed.: Solar Variability and Geomagnetism. Beitr. Gesch. Geophysik u. kosm. Physik, Science Edition, Bremen/Potsdam, Vol. 3, No. 2, (and IAGA IDCH Newsletter, No. 44) 2002, 300 pp; W. Schröder ed.: Alte und neue Probleme der Physik und Geophysik. Beitr. Gesch. Geophysik u. kosm. Physik, Science Edition, Bremen/Potsdam, Vol. 4, No.1, (and IAGA IDCH Newsletter, No. 46), 2003, 160 pp; W. Schröder ed.: Leuchtende Nachtwolken/Noctilucent clouds. Beitr. Gesch. Geophysik u. kosm. Physik, Arbeitskreis Gesch. Geoph. u. kosm. Physik, Science Edition, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2003, 182 pp; W. Schröder ed.: Das Polarlicht (Hermann Fritz und die Polarlichtforschung)/The Aurora Borealis (Hermann Fritz and the Foundation of Auroral Research). Beitr. Gesch. Geophysik u. kosm. Physik,  Arbeitskreis Gesch. Geoph. u. kosm. Physik, Science Edition, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2004, 60 pp;

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The paper describes a few cases of different type outliers and possibilities to eliminate their disturbing (or meaningful) effect.

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We address the further improvements and clarifications to the formal and categorizing definition of outlier given by Monhor and Takemoto (2005), by means of integrating to the above definition the subclass of valuable outliers introduced by Verő (2009). The concrete illustrative examples taken from geophysics and other areas, and the further remarks on and insights into the nature of outliers presented in this paper are, to a certain extent, the contributions to the establishment of such a categorization that integrates the diverse and heterogenous appearance of outliers and helps the comprehensive grasp of the concept of outlier.

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B. Hofmann-Wellenhof, K. Legat, M. Wieser: Navigation. Principles of Positioning and Guidance. Springer-Verlag, Wien, New York, 2003, 427 pages, 99 figs; W. Schröder ed.: Zur Entstehung der solar-terrestrischen Physik/Some aspects of the earlier history of solar-terrestrial physics. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Geophysik und kosmischen Physik, Vol. 5, No. 3., Science Edition, 2004, pp. 150

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Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica
Authors: P. Bencze, B. Heilig, B. Zieger, J. Szendrői, J. Verő, H. Lühr, K. Yumoto, Y. Tanaka, and J. Střeštík

The total solar eclipse of August 11, 1999 offered a unique opportunity for the study of its geomagnetic effect — more specifically, of its effect on geomagnetic (Pc3) pulsations, as it swept through Europes many observatories, and additional temporary stations have also been established by Japanese, German and Hungarian groups. The present paper starts with an analysis of the ionospheric-interplanetary background. In the interplanetary medium, no indication was found which could result in any extraordinary event in pulsation activity. The both horizontally and vertically widespread ionospheric effect (electron density decrease) explains a change of the polarisation angle by about ten degrees in the local field line resonance (FLR) band. However, the most significant solar eclipse effect was identified as dramatic clockwise rotation (up to 70 degrees) of the polarisation ellipse of Pc3, Pc4 and Pc5 pulsations. Pulsation data exhibit a strong amplitude decrease (roughly by a factor of two) in and around the totality spot of the eclipse. The decrease is most significant at the local field line resonance (FLR) period. In the actual case, the FLR decrease swept over Europe with a speed being similar to the speed of the dark spot. We suppose that the FLR mechanism was disturbed by the change of particle distribution along the field lines ending in the dark zone due to upward propagation of the electron density decrease caused by the lack of ionising solar radiation in the E-layer of the ionosphere. Thus, the FLR mechanism can be disturbed both from outside, by a sudden change of the interplanetary magnetic field (Verő et al. 1998) and from inside, by a change of the particle density/distribution along the actual field line.

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Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica
Authors: A. Ádám, P. Bencze, F. Märcz, D. Martini, G. Sátori, L. Szarka, J. Verő, V. Wesztergom, and B. Zieger

This is a summary of the activities of the Geophysics Department of the Geodetic and Geophysical Institute in the framework of the Scientific School Earth Electromagnetism. Ten reports cover the most important topics and emphasize interconnections between the different phenomena. The topics include interplanetary space, magnetosphere and ionosphere, electromagnetic waves in a wide spectrum, and electromagnetic induction, also within a wide range of frequencies and applications. Geomagnetism, especially the Széchenyi István Geophysical Observatory Nagycenk with a lot of different recordings of electromagnetic parameters play important roles in most topics.

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