We consider finite packings of unit-balls in Euclidean 3-spaceE3 where the centres of the balls are the lattice points of a lattice polyhedronP of a given latticeL3⊃E3. In particular we show that the facets ofP induced by densest sublattices ofL3 are not too close to the next parallel layers of centres of balls. We further show that the Dirichlet-Voronoi-cells are comparatively small in this direction. The paper was stimulated by the fact that real crystals in general grow slowly in the directions normal to these dense facets.
Authors:K. Ellis, S. Kelleher, A. Raciti, J. Savory and M. Wills
In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to examine the total body and partial body (hand) aluminum levels in patients with end-stage renal failure. Patients maintained on chronic hemodialysis had higher mean body burdens of aluminum than, did those clinically managed without dialysis. Approximately 70% of the patients examined indicated elevated levels of body or skeletal aluminum. A significant correlation was observed between the in vivo aluminum/calcium ratio obtained for the hand measurement and the increase in serum aluminum levels following a disferroxamine infusion test. The direct in vivo monitoring of hand Al/Ca values in patients may provide an alternate choice to bone biopsy for the detection of aluminum intoxication.
Authors:R Frost, R Wills, J Kloprogge and W Martens
with mass spectrometry has been used to study the thermal decomposition of
a synthetic hydronium jarosite. Five mass loss steps are observed at 262,
294, 385, 557 and 619C. The mass loss step at 557C is sharp and
marks a sharp loss of sulphate as SO3 from the hydronium
jarosite. Mass spectrometry through evolved gases confirms the first three
mass loss steps to dehydroxylation, the fourth to a mass loss of the hydrated
proton and a sulphate and the final step to the loss of the remaining sulphate.
Changes in the molecular structure of the hydronium jarosite were followed
by infrared emission spectroscopy. This technique allows the infrared spectrum
at the elevated temperatures to be obtained. Infrared emission spectroscopy
confirms the dehydroxylation has taken place by 400 and the sulphate loss
by 650C. Jarosites are a group of minerals formed in evaporite deposits
and form a component of the efflorescence. The minerals can function as cation
and heavy metal collectors. Hydronium jarosite has the potential to act as
a cation collector by the replacement of the proton with a heavy metal cation.
Authors:Ray Frost, Rachael-Anne Wills, J. Kloprogge and Wayde Martens
Thermogravimetry combined with mass spectrometry
has been used to study the thermal decomposition of a synthetic ammonium jarosite.
Five mass loss steps are observed at 120, 260, 389, 510 and 541°C. Mass
spectrometry through evolved gases confirms these steps as loss of water,
dehydroxylation, loss of ammonia and loss of sulphate in two steps. Changes
in the molecular structure of the ammonium jarosite were followed by infrared
emission spectroscopy (IES). This technique allows the infrared spectrum at
the elevated temperatures to be obtained. IES confirms the dehydroxylation
to have taken place by 300°C and the ammonia loss by 450°C. Loss of
the sulphate is observed by changes in band position and intensity after 500°C.