The divalent oxidation state of californium (Cf) has been stabilized in crystalline SrB4O7. The ability to generate this less-stable oxidation state in an oxide matrix is significant. Factors promoting this stabilization have been determined. Access to this divalent state and those of many other lanthanide and actinide elements via a rather straightforward laboratory procedure now facilitates their study and characterization.
The adsorption behavior of silica gel for Zr, Pu and fission products (Fe, Mo, Nd, etc.) in high-level liquid waste (HLLW)
have been studied. The dynamic desorption for Zr and Pu are also investigated. Silica gel is found to have high selectivity
for Zr to other elements in HLLW and its adsorption capacity can be enhanced by H2C2O4 elution and multiple reuse. However, the adsorption for Pu(IV) is also found. This may cause spent silica gel to be alpha
waste. Further study should be carried out on the adsorption behavior for Pu(IV).
The isothermal crystallization and subsequent melting behavior of one propylene homopolymer and three propylene-1-decene copolymers
with different comonomer contents prepared by metallocene catalyst were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
It is found that the Avrami exponent of the propylene copolymers decreases gradually with the increase of comonomer content,
from 3.0 for the propylene homopolymer to 1.4 for the copolymer with 7.83 mol% 1-decene units. Higher comonomer content also
weakens the dependence of crystallization rate constant and crystallization halftime on temperature. Double melting peaks,
which correspond to α and γ crystal phases, respectively, are observed for all copolymers under isothermal crystallization.
The result shows that higher crystallization temperature is favorable to the segregation of α and γ crystal phases, resulting
in higher proportion of γ crystal phase.
We show that, in the classes of functions with values in a real or complex Banach space, the problem of Hyers-Ulam stability
of a linear functional equation of higher order (with constant coefficients) can be reduced to the problem of stability of
a first order linear functional equation. As a consequence we prove that (under some weak additional assumptions) the linear
equation of higher order, with constant coefficients, is stable in the case where its characteristic equation has no complex
roots of module one. We also derive some results concerning solutions of the equation.
Authors:Y. Wang, L. Yin, G. Lv, Y. Xu, L. Xu, Y. Qi, L. Zheng, and J. Peng
In the present paper, a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was developed both for quantitative determination and fingerprint analysis of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb for quality control. Under the optimized HPLC conditions, seven bioactive compounds including rutin, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, luteoloside, tiliroside, apigenin, kaempferol, and agrimonolide were determined simultaneously. For fingerprint analysis, 11 common peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of 16 different samples collected from different origins in China. Besides, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also performed to evaluate the variation of the raw materials. This is the first report of using a simple method for quality control of A. pilosa Ledeb through multi-component determination and chromatographic fingerprint analysis to the best of our knowledge.
Authors:X. Li, J. Xu, Y. Jiang, L. Chen, Y. Xu, and C. Pan
High-performance liquid chromatography with a hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) column has been successfully used to retain and separate the polar phosphonic herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate. Online electrospray tandem ion-trap mass spectrometric and DAD detection were used. The effects on the separation of mobile phase acetonitrile content, buffer concentration, and flow rate, and of column temperature, were investigated. With UV-visible detection at 195 nm, LOQ were <850 mg kg−1, showing the method is suitable for product quality control of these herbicides alone or in combination. Tandem mass spectrometric conditions were optimized for ion-trap detection. Quantification was by use of selected reaction monitoring transitions m/z 168 → 150 in negative-ion mode for glyphosate and m/z 182 → 136 in positive-ion mode for glufosinate. Limits of detection (LOD; S/N > 3) were 0.20 and 0.16 ng for glyphosate and glufosinate, respectively, and the respective limits of quantification (LOQ; S/N = 10) were 0.02 and 0.05 mg kg−1. Sample derivatization was not necessary to achieve low detection limits in residue analysis in this study. Recovery from watermelon, spinach, potato, tomato, radish-root, and water fortified with the herbicides ranged from 63.6 to 107.3% and relative standard deviations were <15.3%.
Supramolecular 2,3- and 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate (PDC) intercalated
ZnAl-layered double hydroxides (2,3- and 2,5-PDC–ZnAl–LDHs) have
been prepared by ion exchange method. The structure and composition of the
intercalated materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively
coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). The study indicates that the 2,3-PDC
and 2,5-PDC anions are accommodated as interdigitated bilayer and monolayer
arrangement respectively between the sheets of LDHs. Furthermore, their thermal
decomposition processes were studied by the use of in situ high temperature
X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), and the combined technique of thermogravimetry-differential
thermal analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS) under N2 atmosphere. Based
on the comparison study on the temperatures of both decarboxylation and complete
decomposition of interlayer PDC, it can be concluded that 2,5-PDC–ZnAl–LDHs
has higher thermal stability than that of 2,3-PDC–ZnAl–LDHs.
Authors:J. Liu, H. Xu, W. Shen, X. Pan, and Y. Xiang
Mn2O3/-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method, and the maximum monolayer dispersion capacity or dispersion threshold value of Mn2O3 on the surface of -Al2O3 was determined to be 13.08% from the decomposition mass loss of supported Mn(NO3)2 in the monolayer state. This was compared with the values estimated from a close-packed monolayer model and an interaction model. It was confirmed that the high activities and selectivities of the catalysts for benzoic acid hydrogenation to benzaldehyde are due to the monolayer dispersion of the Mn2O3 on the surface of -Al2O3.