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  • Author or Editor: J. Zhao x
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of endophytic fungi from tartary buckwheat on the host sprout growth and functional metabolite production. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous fungal mycelia elicitors notably stimulated the sprout growth and rutin accumulation, and the stimulation effect was mainly depended on the mycelia elicitor species along with its treatment dose. Three endophytic fungi Fat6 (Bionectria pityrodes), Fat9 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Fat15 (Alternaria sp.) were screened to be the most effective candidates for promoting F. tataricum sprout growth and rutin production. With application of polysaccharide (PS, 150 mg/l) of endophyte Fat6, PS (200 mg/l) of endophyte Fat9, and PS (150 mg/l) of endophyte Fat15, the rutin yield was effectively increased to 47.89 mg/(100 sprouts), 45.85 mg/(100 sprouts) and 46.83 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. That was about 1.5- to 1.6-fold compared to the control culture of 29.37 mg/(100 sprouts). Furthermore, the present study revealed that the biosynthesis of the functional flavonoid resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by mycelia polysaccharide treatments. Application of specific fungal elicitors could be an efficient strategy for improving the nutritional and functional quality of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

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Abstract  

Temperature programmed combustions (TPC) of Yang-Quan anthracite, Liao-Cheng lean coal and Li-Yan bituminous coal in oxy-fuel atmosphere were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer and characteristic parameters were deduced from the TG-DTG curves. The results showed that combustion got harder to progress as the coalification degree increasing. Within range of 40%, effect of heightening O2 concentration favored the combustion process, but beyond this zone, the effect leveled off. The model-fitting mathematical approach was used to evaluated the kinetic triplet (f (α), E, A) through Coats–Redfern method. The calculation showed that D 3-Jander was the proper reaction model and the evaluations of E and A validated the experimental results.

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Abstract  

The surface acidic properties of sulfated vanadia–titania catalysts prepared by various methods were investigated by adsorption microcalorimetry, using ammonia as probe molecule. The acidic characteristics of the samples were shown to be strongly affected by the preparation method, calcination temperature, and sulfur content. The samples prepared by sol–gel and mechanical grinding exhibited higher acidity than co-precipitated samples. Moreover, increasing the calcination temperature of co-precipitated samples resulted in a decrease in surface area from 402 to 57 m2 g−1 and sulfur content from around 4 to 0.2 mass%, but up to a certain point generated a stronger acidity. The optimal calcination temperature appeared to be around 673 K.

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Abstract  

The thermal behavior of rutin extracted from the buds of Sophora japonica L. by different methods and conditions have been investigated using TG and DTG. The results showed that every sample had different mass loss, curve shape, and peak location related to varied extraction technology. The TG-DTG characteristics of the rutin sample extracted by alkali-dissolution and acid-sedimentation with the solution adjusted to pH 9 and simply borax as stabilizer were highly similar to that of standard rutin, with the maximal purity determined by spectrophotometry. Therefore, the TG-DTG patterns could be served to characterize rutin extracted from the buds of Sophora japonica L.

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Summary

A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for separation and quantitative analysis of flavonoid aglycones in Rhododendron anthropogonosides Maxim. Flavonoids in their bound forms were hydrolyzed with acid before HPLC analysis. Analytical samples were pretreated by solid-phase extraction on C18 reversed-phase cartridges. Optimum separation on a 4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d. C18 column was achieved by use of a 52:48 (v/v) mixture of methanol and an aqueous solution of 10 mm citric acid and 1 mm sodium dodecyl sulfate as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL min–1 and the detection wavelength 360 nm. Five flavonoids, myricetin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin, were separated with high resolution without use of gradient elution. The method was successfully used for efficient quality-control analysis by quantifying flavonoids in R. anthopogonosides. Repeatability tests showed that intra-day and inter-day RSD was <10%. LOD of the five flavonoids were <0.85 μg mL–1. Recovery ranged from 90.2 to 112.5%, with RSD <11.1%.

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Abstract  

The two complexes, [RE(Gly)4(Im)(H2O)](ClO4)3(s)(RE = Eu, Sm), have been synthesized and characterized. The standard molar enthalpies of reaction for the following reactions, RECl3·6H2O(s)+4Gly(s)+Im(s)+3NaClO4(s) = =[RE(Gly)4(Im)(H2O)](ClO4)3(s)+3NaCl(s)+5H2O(l), were determined by solution-reaction colorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of the two complexes at T = 298.15 K were derived as Δf H m Θ {Eu(Gly)4(Im)(H2O)}(ClO4)3(s)} = = −(3396.6±2.3) kJ mol−1 and Δf H m Θ {Sm(Gly)4(Im)(H2O)}(ClO4)3(s)} = −(3472.7±2.3) kJ mol−1, respectively.

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To investigate the effect of Zn fertilization on soil Zn fractions and grain Zn concentration in wheat grown on potentially Zn-deficient soil, a field experiment was carried out. The experimental design was split plot consisted of two varieties of wheat (Zhengmai 9023 and Xinong 889) with five Zn levels (0, 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 kg Zn/ha). Results showed that Zn fertilization had no significant effect on wheat yield and grain Zn concentration, and the recovery of Zn fertilizer was only 0.06% to 0.29%. However, the amount of soil DTPA-Zn was increased by 2.3-9.8-folds as Zn supplementation increases during the whole wheat growth stage as compared to the control (Zn0 treatment). Besides, DTPA-Zn was positively correlated with both Loose organic matter bound Zn (LOM-Zn) and Exchange Zn (Ex-Zn), and their partial correlation coefficients were 0.558 and 0.119, respectively. Moreover, these two fractions also showed positive correlation with grain Zn concentration. The amount of LOM-Zn was firstly increased with increasing Zn fertilizer levels then gradually decreased as it get converted to mineral bound Zn (Min-Zn). Zn fertilization in this potentially Zn deficient soil increased the amount of DTPA-Zn in the whole wheat growth stage; however, grain Zn concentration cannot be significantly increased as Zn levels increase, thus suggesting that there are inhibitory factors for Zn absorption and translocation. Furthermore, the amount of soil DTPA-Zn perhaps cannot exactly reflect the capability of soil to supply Zn.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: L. Yang, Li Sun, Fen Xu, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, Z. Zhao, C. Song, R. Wu, and Riko Ozao

Abstract  

The microcalorimetric method has been used to study the effects of cefpiramide and ceftizoxime sodium on the E. coli growth. The results revealed that these two cephalosporins may alter the metabolic way of the E. coli. Moreover, the lethal doses of cefpiramide and ceftizoxime sodium are 2.000 and 0.2000 μg mL−1, respectively. Combining with the relationships between growth rate constant (k), the maximum power output (P m), the time corresponding to the maximum power output (t m) and cephalosporins concentration (C), one can draw the conclusion that the ceftizoxime sodium has a stronger inhibition effects on the growth of E. coli than that of cefpiramide and they both have the possibility to induce the drug fever.

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Abstract

As N-2′,4′-dinitrophenyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine (DNPDNAZ) is an important derivative of 3,3-dinitroazetidine, its thermal behavior was studied under 0.1 and 2 MPa by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. The results of this study show that there are one melting process and two exothermic decomposition processes. Its kinetic parameters of the intense exothermic decomposition process were obtained from the analysis of the DSC curves. The activation energy and the mechanism function under 0.1 MPa are 167.26 kJ mol−1 and f(α) = 3(1 + α)2/3[(1 + α)1/3− 1]−1/2, respectively, and the said parameters under 2 MPa are 169.30 kJ mol−1 and f(α) = 3(1 + α)2/3[(1 + α)1/3− 1]−1/2, respectively. The specific heat capacity of DNPDNAZ was determined using a continuous C p mode of micro-calorimeter. Using the relationship between C p and T with the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initialization to thermal explosion (adiabatic time-to-explosion, t TIAD), the self-accelerating decomposition temperature (T SADT), thermal ignition temperature (T TIT), critical temperatures of thermal explosion (T b), and half-life (t 1/2) were obtained to evaluate its thermal safety under different pressures.

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