Let M be the closed, simply connected, 4-manifold with nonnegative sectional curvature, called a nonnegatively curved 4-manifold, with an effective and isometric Zm-action for a positive integer m ≧ 617. Assume that Zm acts trivially on the homology of M. The goal of this short paper is to prove that if the fixed point set of any nontrivial element of Zm has at most one two-dimensional component, then M is homeomorphic to S4, #il=1S2 × S2, l = 1, 2, or #jk = 1 ± CP2, k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. The main strategy of this paper is to give an upper bound of the Euler characteristic χ(M) under the homological assumption of a Zm-action as above by using the Lefschetz fixed point formula.
To investigate the pathogens that racing pigeons in Taiwan are exposed to, a total of 3764 pigeons from 90 lofts were analysed by collection of blood samples in the period between October 2000 and September 2001. The haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed to detect antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), type 2 avian paramyxovirus (APMV-2), and egg drop syndrome '76 virus (EDS-76V). The agar-gel precipitin (AGP) test was used to detect antibodies against fowl adenovirus (FAV), goose parvovirus (GPV), and avian reovirus (REO). The virus neutralisation (VN) test was applied to detect antibodies against the serotypes FAV-1 and FAV-8. A rapid serum agglutination test was applied for the detection of antibodies against Mycoplasma spp. Antibodies to several infectious agents were found, including NDV (43.3%), EDS-76V (19.2%), FAV (0.8%), REO (0.5%), APMV-2 (0.2%), Mycoplasma columbinum (10.3%), M. columborale (7.1%), M. synoviae (1.8%) and M. gallisepticum (1.3%). Antibodies against GPV, FAV-1, and FAV-8 were not detected in any serum sample. NDV seroprevalence was significantly higher in pigeons of more than one year of age than in pigeons younger than one year. ND or EDS-76 seroprevalence of pigeons vaccinated with ND vaccine or EDS-76 vaccine was significantly higher than that of pigeons that did not receive any vaccination.
The effects of red grape, wild grape and black raspberry wines on the quality of ground pork during a 15 days refrigerated storage period were investigated. The levels of phenolic compounds were the highest in black raspberry wine (P<0.05). In contrast, the antioxidant capacities according to ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were not significantly different among the wines (P>0.05). The addition of 5% and 10% wine influenced the quality of ground pork by decreasing pH, inhibiting the progression of lipid oxidation and the formation of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and stabilizing the red colour of the ground pork compared to control samples to which no wine was added. In ground pork, addition of red grape wine led to lower concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, 0.19–0.39 mg kg−1) and TVB-N values (69.1–119.9 mg kg−1) than wild grape (0.16–0.43 mg kg−1 and 72.0–194.1 mg kg−1, respectively) or black raspberry wine (0.33–0.58 mg kg−1 and 81.7–225.4 mg kg−1, respectively) up to 10 days of storage. Results from the present study suggested that the quality of ground pork was affected by wine type and storage period. These effects could be due to phenolic compounds as well as other chemical components of the wines.
Authors:S. Kwon, J. Kim, D. Ahn, H. Lee, and H. Ahn
The distillation behaviour of cadmium at a reduced pressure was investigated to develop an actinide recovery process from
a liquid cadmium cathode in a laboratory scale cadmium distiller. The apparent evaporation rate of cadmium increased with
an increasing temperature whereas the rate decreased with an increasing vacuum pressure. The evaporation rate of cadmium varied
within 9.7–40 g/cm2/h in the temperature range of 500–650 °C and pressure range of 0.5–10 Torr (0.0667–1.33 kPa). The theoretical values calculated
by the Hertz–Langmuir relation were much higher than experimentally measured values. The deviation was compensated by an evaporation
coefficient (α) obtained empirically. About 0.02–0.20 wt% of residue was left in the crucible after distillation and found
to be CdO. It could be concluded that the temperature range of 500–650 °C is favourable for the cadmium distillation process
if residual eutectic salt does not exist in the cadmium alloy surface.
Authors:S. Kwon, K. Park, H. Ahn, H. Lee, and J. Kim
It is important to increase a throughput of the salt removal process from uranium deposits which is generated on the solid
cathode of electro-refiner in pyroprocess. In this study, it was proposed to increase the throughput of the salt removal process
by the separation of the liquid salt prior to the distillation of the LiCl–KCl eutectic salt from the uranium deposits. The
feasibility of liquid salt separation was examined by salt separation experiments on a stainless steel sieve. It was found
that the amount of salt to be distilled could be reduced by the liquid salt separation prior to the salt distillation. The
residual salt remained in the deposits after the liquid salt separation was successfully removed further by the vacuum distillation.
It was concluded that the combination of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation is an effective route for the
achievement of a high throughput performance in the salt separation process.
Authors:D. Kim, J. Kim, J. Jeon, H. Kim, and N. Lee
The novel NDOE (1,12,15-triaza-3,4:9,10-dibenzo-5,8-dioxacycloheptadecane) ion exchange resin was prepared. The ion exchange
capacity of NDOE azacrown ion exchanger was 0.2 meq/g dry resin. A study on the separation of lithium isotopes was carried
out with NDOE novel azacrown ion exchange resin. The lighter isotope,6Li concentrated in the solution phase, while the heavier isotope,7Li is enriched in the resin phase. By column chromatography (0.1 cm I.D.×32 cm height) using 2.0M NH4Cl as an eluent, a separation factor,a=1.0201 was obtained.
Gamma-ray treatment in the presence of ozone (O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) showed an efficient removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). Without gamma-irradiation, TCE and PCE were not sufficiently decomposed to comply with the water quality limit of groundwater. However, near 100% of TCE and PCE were removed at a dose of 300 Gy in the presence of O3 and TiO2, where TiO2 showed an explicit enhancement of decomposition. Cytotoxicity test using Chinese hamster V79 cells showed no toxicity of the TCE and PCE decomposition products.
Carbonate ions significantly inhibit the decomposition of TCE (trichloroethylene) and PCE (perchloroethylene) by gamma-rays. The inhibition effect is larger in the case of TCE than PCE due to a greater dependence of TCE decomposition on hydroxyl radicals. The inhibition effect of carbonate ions was characterized by an EPR/spin-trapping technique. The intensity of DMPO-OH adduct signal decreased as the carbonate ion concentration increased and the percent of signal reduction was linearly proportional to the logarithm of carbonate ion concentration. This directly proves that the carbonate ions inhibit the decomposition of TCE and PCE by scavenging hydroxyl radicals.
An approach based on sequential extraction separation and the subsequent ICP-MS measurement was introduced to determine 99Tc in radioactive wastes. The radwastes were firstly alkaline-fused and the 99Tc was separated by a sequential solvent extraction prior to ICP-MS measurement. NaDDC was selected as a chelation reagent in the solvent extraction processes. The influence of HCl and matrix concentration on the recovery yield and the effectiveness of removing isobar and unwanted radionuclides, such as 137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co and 110mAg, were evaluated. The designed sequential extraction procedure was optimized by an extraction experiment. The proposed technique is proven to be a simple and practical alternative for 99Tc determination in low-level radioactive wastes; chemical separation of 99Tc can be simplified and preconcentration such as precipitation and/or ion exchange, before the solvent extraction, can be excluded.
A pilot plant was developed for the reclamation and reuse of secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant. The plant system
consists of sand filtration, gamma-irradiation, ozonation and ion-exchange. Gamma-irradiation showed effective organic contaminant
decomposition and this resulted in the reduction of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), color, chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and total organic carbon (TOC). Ion-exchange significantly removed inorganic ions, and thus reduced total nitrogen (TN)
and total phosphorus (TP). The average reduction in color, CODCr, BOD5, TOC, TN and TP, which was obtained after 12 operations, was 64, 52, 67, 61, 95 and 92%, respectively. Irrespective of applied
radiation dose, the treated water fully satisfied the quality requirements of household water that can be used for all home
uses except for drinking and human contact uses.