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  • Author or Editor: J.H. Peng x
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The bread wheat germplasm comprising of 222 accessions was evaluated for tolerance to Sitobion avenae. A 1000-kernel weight loss rate and an unbiased test of the tolerance were used to quantify tolerance trait. The population structure analysis revealed three subpopulations in this wheat collection. After 103 SSR loci which evenly covered all wheat chromosomes were scanned for association, eight SSR loci significantly associated with S. avenae tolerance. The information reported in this study would be helpful for wise utilization of the S. avenae tolerant germplasm and selection of parental lines in wheat breeding programs.

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Abstract  

The displacement adsorption enthalpies (ΔH) of denatured α-Amylase (by 1.8 mol L−1 GuHCl) adsorbed onto a moderately hydrophobic surface (PEG-600, the end-group of polyethylene glycol) from solutions (x mol L−1 (NH4)2SO4, 0.05 mol L−1 KH2PO4, pH 7.0) at 298 K are determined by microcalorimeter. Further, entropies (ΔS), Gibbs free energies (ΔG) and the fractions of ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG for net adsorption of protein and net desorption of water are calculated in combination with adsorption isotherms of α-Amylase based on the stoichiometric displacement theory for adsorption (SDT-A) and its thermodynamics. It is found that the displacement adsorptions of denatured α-Amylase onto PEG-600 surface are exothermic and enthalpy driven processes, and the processes of protein adsorption are accompanied with the hydration by which hydrogen bond form between the adsorbed protein molecules favor formation of β-sheet and β-turn structures. The Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis shows that the contents of ordered secondary structures of adsorbed α-Amylase increase with surface coverages and salt concentrations increment.

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Over 90% of the cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) produced in the world is applied in the production of phenol and acetone. The additional applications were used as a catalyst, a curing agent, and as an initiator for polymerization. Many previous studies from open literature have verified and employed various aspects of the thermal decomposition and thermokinetics of CHP reactions. An isothermal microcalorimeter (thermal activity monitor III, TAM III), and a thermal dynamic calorimetry (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC) were used to resolve the exothermic behaviors, such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat power, heat of decomposition (ΔH d), self-heating rate, peak temperature of reaction system, time to maximum rate (TMR), etc. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry was used to analyze the CHP products with its derivatives at 150 °C. This study will assess and validate the thermal hazards of CHP and incompatible reactions of CHP mixed with its derivatives, such as acetonphenone (AP), and dimethylphenyl carbinol (DMPC), that are essential to process safety design.

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Members of WRKY gene family encode transcription factors involved in plant developmental processes and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to understand the function of the TaWRKY71 gene, a homologue gene was isolated and characterised in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype TAM107. Tissue-specific gene expression profiles indicated that TaWRKY71 was constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, stamen and pistil. The relative expression of TaWRKY71 was elucidated under ABA treatment and other abiotic stresses. In agreement with this, several putative cis-acting elements involved in ABA-response, drought-inducibility, low-temperature and heat response were detected in the promoter region of TaWRKY71. The function of TaWRKY71 was further determined by transforming Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic plants over-expressing TaWRKY71 displayed enhanced seed germination under ABA treatment and were tolerant to salt and drought stresses. These results indicate that TaWRKY71 gene might play important roles in seed germination and abiotic stress response.

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In mammals, testis development is initiated by the expression of the sex-determining gene, SRY , where-as the genetic trigger for sex determination in birds remains unknown. In the present study, the expression of seven genes implicated in vertebrate sex determination and differentiation were studied in chicken embryonic gonads from day 4 to day 12 of incubation using reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed transcription of c Lhx9 , c GATA4 , c Vnn1 , c Ppt1 , c Brd3 were sexually dimorphic during chicken gonadal development, whereas c Eki2 , c Fog2 were expressed at similar levels in both sexes. Results of comparative studies between mammals and chickens show that vertebrate sex-determining pathways comprise both conserved and divergent elements: expression profiles of c GATA4 /c Fog2 and c Vnn1 are similar to those in mammals, while others appear some differences. Possible functions of these genes on chicken gonadal development were analyzed based on their expression profiles.

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Based on the known GA20-oxidase (GA20ox) cDNAs of barley and wheat, oligonucleotide primers were designed to isolate GA20ox genes from genomic DNA of Dasypyrum villosum. A total of 19 clones were obtained. Each of them contained an open reading frame encoding a putative 40-KDa protein of 359 amino acid residues. Twenty-one SNPs and 4 InDels were found and could divide the 19 sequences into 2 classes, designated as DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2, respectively. Q-PCR analyses showed that both DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 were in leaf blade, leaf sheath, stem, eustipes, root and developing spike. Similar expression levels were found between DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 in three stages. The total expression levels of DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 presented downtrend in leaf blade and ascend in stem, eustipes and developing spike along with the development of plants, respectively. However, they were firstly increased and then decreased in root from seeding stage to heading stage. These results revealed that the gene expression profile of DvGA20ox-1 and DvGA20ox-2 closely related to the growth and development of D. villosum.

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Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (SFI) is a traditional Chinese medicine injection, widely used to enhance immune function of clinical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) method was established for quality control of SFI, which could simultaneously semiquantitatively reflect the constituents displayed in the chromatographic profile of SFI. The relative retention time and relative peak areas of the 21 common peaks related to the reference peak were calculated. The validity and advantage of this method were validated by systematically comparing chromatograms of 10 batches of SFI samples with the analytical methods of principal component analysis and angle cosine method recommended by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Moreover, a total of 21 constituents of SFI were identified or tentatively characterized in the fingerprint via ultrafast liquid chromatography-diode array detection-quadrupole time-of-flight (UFLC-DAD-Q-TOF) tandem mass spectrometry technique on the basis of the retention time, ultraviolet spectra, fragmentation patterns, and reported literatures. All the results proved that the technique was useful in comprehensive quality evaluation of SFI and further study.

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Abstract  

Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) and its derivatives have caused many serious explosions and fires in Taiwan as a consequence of thermal instability, chemical contamination, and even mechanical shock. It has been employed in polymerization for producing phenol and dicumyl peroxide (DCPO). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to analyze the thermal hazard of CHP in the presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and sodium bisulfite (Na2SO3). Thermokinetic parameters for decomposition, such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0 ), maximum temperature (T max ), and enthalpy (ΔH), were obtained from the thermal curves. Isothermal microcalorimetry (thermal activity monitor, TAM) was employed to investigate the thermal hazards during CHP storage and CHP mixed with NaOH, H2SO4, and Na2SO3 under isothermal conditions in a reactor or container. Tests by TAM indicated that from 70 to 90 °C an autocatalytic reaction was apparent in the thermal curves. According to the results from the TAM test, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was, in turn, adopted to analyze the result of concentration versus time. By the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy (E a ) and rate constant (k) were calculated. Depending on the process conditions, NaOH was one of the incompatible chemicals or catalysts for CHP. When CHP is mixed with NaOH, the T 0 is induced earlier and the reactions become more complex than for pure CHP, and the E a is lower than for pure CHP.

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To determine the most effective preservation method for MiBa (a traditional Chinese rice product), MiBa treated with 75% alcohol, 75% alcohol + inhibitor, ozone treatment; untreated (control); and raw rice were subjected to 16S rRNA gene and ITS three-generation sequencing by High-throughput Sequencing Technology. According to the results the preservation effects of different treatment methods ranked as follows: ozone treatment >75% alcohol treatment >75% alcohol+inhibitor > control. Bacterial composition analysis showed that the bacterial community on the surface of MiBa treated with ozone was dominated by genera Leuconostoc and Serratia. The fungal community consisted mainly of Aspergillus and Alternaria. In summary, ozone treatment proved to be the most effective in inhibiting microbial contamination during the storage of MiBa, effectively extending its shelf life.

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Abstract

Soluble dietary fibre (SDF) is well recognised for its remarkable effectiveness in promoting human health. This study utilised response surface methodology to evaluate the optimal conditions required to extract SDF (U-SDF) from Lentinula edodes via the ultrasonic-assisted hot-water method, and evaluated the hypolipidemic effects and anti-inflammatory effects of U-SDF. The optimal extraction conditions for U-SDF were ultrasonic power of 182 W, extraction time of 2 h, extraction temperature of 81 °C, and solid-liquid ratio of 1:24 (g mL−1). Under these conditions, the extraction rate of U-SDF reached 8.08%. U-SDF treatment significantly improved liver and kidney indices in diabetic mice, markedly reduced the levels of plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and significantly increased the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner. U-SDF also improved adipose tissue injury in diabetic mice, significantly decreased the levels of cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and alleviated inflammation of the abdominal aorta. In conclusion, U-SDF from L. edodes is an excellent source of dietary fibres, which exhibit good hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities, suggesting potential applications as a functional additive in diverse food products.

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