Blends of poly(ether-sulfone) (PES) and poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) with various compositions were prepared using an internal
mixer at 290C and 50 rpm for 10 min. The thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of PES/PPS blends have been investigated
by means of DSC and DMA. The blends showed two glass transition temperatures corresponding to PPS-rich and PES-rich phases.
Both of them decreased obviously for the blends with PES matrix. On the other hand, Tg of PPS and PES phase decreased a little when PPS is the continuous phase. In the blends quenched from molten state the cold
crystallization temperature of PPS was detected in the blends of PES/PPS with mass ratio 50/50 and 60/40. The melting point,
crystallization temperature and the crystallinity of blended PPS were nearly unaffected when the mass ratio of PES was less
than 60%, however, when the amount of PES is over 60% in the blends, the crystallization of PPS chains was hindered. The thermal
and the dynamic mechanical properties of the PPS/PES blends were mainly controlled by the continued phase.
The freezing and melting of water in semi-dilute (0.5–3.0%) solutions of the polysaccharide hyaluronanhave been investigated by modulated differential scanning calorimetry.High molecular weight hyaluronan inhibited nucleation of ice and significantly depressed thefreezing temperature in a dynamic scan conducted at –3.0°C min–1. Low molecular weight hyaluronan had a weaker and more variable effect on nucleation. Theeffects on nucleation, especially by the high molecular weight hyaluronan, are attributed tothe influence of a hyaluronan network on the formation of critical ice nuclei.Both high and low molecular weight hyaluronan reduced the melting temperature of ice by 0.4–1.1°C, depending on concentration. The enthalpy change associated with this transitionwas significantly reduced. If all of the enthalpy difference is attributed to the presence of non-freezing water, approximately 3.65 g water/g hyaluronan would be non-freezing. This result appears incompatible with published studies on hyaluronan samples of low water content. An alternative hypothesis and quantitative approach to analysis of the data are suggested. The data are interpreted in terms of a small amount of non-freezing water, and amuch larger boundary layer of water surrounding hyaluronan chains, which has slightly altered thermodynamic properties relative to those of bulk water. The boundary layer water behaves similarly to water trapped in small pores in solid materials and hydrogels.
Thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide alternative copolymer, poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC), and the end-capped PPC with maleic anhydride were investigated by means of TG and DMA. A master curve of the storage modulus vs. frequency can be deduced from the isochronal curves. Physical parameters of both plain and MA end-capped PPC were discussed. The results showed that for maleic anhydride (MA) end-capping PPC, an improvement of its thermal stability and mechanical properties accompanied with some modifications of the viscoelastic behavior were obtained.
The complex of [Tb2(o-MBA)6(PHEN)2] (o-MBA: o-methylbenzoate and PHEN:1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy.
The thermal behavior of [Tb2(o-MBA)6(PHEN)2] in dynamic nitrogen atmosphere was investigated by TG-DTG techniques. The thermal decomposition process of the [Tb2(o-MBA)6(PHEN)2] occurred in three consecutive stages at Tp 294, 427 and 512C. The kinetic parameters and mechanisms of first decomposition stage from analysis of the TG-DTG curves
were obtained by the Malek method.
Conversion (α) and the glass transition temperature (Tg) were investigated during the isothermal cure of endo-dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) with a Grubbs catalyst for different temperatures using differential scanning calorimetry. Conversion
vs. In (time) data at an arbitrary reference temperature were superposed by horizontal shift and the shift factors were used
to calculate an Arrhenius activation energy. Glass transition temperature vs. conversion data fell on a single curve independent of cure temperature, implying that reaction of the norbornene and cyclopentene
ring of DCPD proceeds in a sequential fashion. Implications of the isothermal reaction kinetics for self-healing composites
Authors:C. Chang, Y. Chou, J. Tseng, M. Liu, and C. Shu
Many concerns over unsafe or unknown properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been raised. The thermal characteristics
regarding stability would represent potential hazards during the production or utilization stage and could be determined by
calorimetric tests for various thermokinetic parameters. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to evaluate
the thermokinetic parameters for MWNTs at various compositions.
Thermoanalytical curves showed that the average heat of decomposition (ΔHd) of the MWNTs samples in a manufacturing process was about 31,723 J g−1, by identifying them as an inherently hazardous material. In this study, significant thermal analysis appeared in the presence
of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). From the DSC experiments, the purification process of MWNTs could induce an unexpected reaction in the condition of batch
addition with reactants of H2SO4. The results can be applied for designing emergency relief system and emergency rescue strategies during a perturbed situation
Authors:J. Jia, G. Li, C. Liu, M. Lei, and Z. Yang
Wheat yellow rust resistance gene Yr17 was originated from the wheat-Aegilops ventricosa introgression, and still effective on the adult plant in Southern China. The previous studies located the gene Yr17 on the translocation of 2NS-2AS using the molecular and cytological markers. In the present study, we screened new PCR-based markers to map the gene Yr17 region from the investigation of a segregating 120 F2 population. All markers including four EST-PCR markers, a SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) and a PLUG (PCR based landmark unique gene) marker specific to Yr17 gene were mapped on the chromosome 2AS, and located on the chromosomal deletion bin 2AS5-0.8–1.00 region. Based on the wheat-rice collinearity, we found that the sequences of the Yr17 gene linked markers were comparatively matched at rice chromosome 4 and chromosome 7. However, the identified closely linked genomic sequence of Yr17 gene is most likely collinear with genomic region of rice chromosome 4. The newly produced PCR based markers closely linked to Yr17 gene will be useful for the marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding for rust resistance.
The thermal decomposition behaviour of the complexes of rare earth metals with histidine: RE(His)(NO3)3
H2O (RE=La—Nd, Sm—Lu and Y; His=histidine) was investigated by means of TG-DTG techniques. The results indicated that the thermal decomposition processes of the complexes can be divided into three steps. The first step is the loss of crystal water molecules or part of the histidine molecules from the complexes. The second step is the formation of alkaline salts or mixtures of nitrates with alkaline salts after the histidine has been completely lost from the complexes. The third step is the formation of oxides or mixtures of oxides with alkaline salts. The results relating to the three steps indicate that the stabilities of the complexes increase from La to Lu.
In order to identify the kinetic process of self-heating in DSC experiment for Ti+3Al→TiAl3 reaction, two approaches, linear-fitting approach developed from Semenov"s theory of spontaneous ignition and variation of
Friedman method, were carried out with cylindrical Ti-75 at% Al samples. Following these approaches, two identical activation
energies are obtained as 16915 kJ mol-1 and 1705 kJ mol-1, respectively. Compared with the activation energies of reactions and interdiffusions between Ti and Al, the possible rate-controlling
process of self-heating in DSC experiment for Ti+3Al→TiAl3 reaction is the interdiffusion between Ti and Al through TiAl3-layer.