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  • Author or Editor: J.Q. Cao x
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The forward and reverse cDNA subtractive libraries before and after the toxic effect of α-amanitin were constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization and randomly selected clones from each subtractive library were screened by PCR and dot blot hybridization. A total of 85 genes with altered expression were finally identified, with 41 genes from the forward library and 44 from the reverse library. Subsequently, the antagonistic effects of candidate traditional Chinese medicines were evaluated based on the genetic transcription levels of the genes with significant altered expression, including Catnβ, Flt3-L, IL-7r and Rpo2-4. The results indicated that Silybum marianum (L.) Gaert and Ganoderma lucidum had significant down-regulated effects on the transcription level of Catnβ that was up-regulated by α-amanitin, and the two herbs also up-regulated the transcription levels of Flt3-L and Rpo2-4. Silybum marianum (L.) had significant up-regulated effects on the IL-7r that was down-regulated by α-amanitin. These preliminary studies suggested that Silybum marianum (L.) and Ganoderma lucidum were effective antagonists against the toxicity of α-amanitin.

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Summary

A reversed-phase chiral liquid chromatographic method had been developed and validated for resolution of the enantiomers of racemic fudosteine. The effects on the separation of the amounts of anhydrous cupric sulfate and l-phenylalanine, the methanol content, mobile phase pH, and temperature were investigated. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, sample recovery, solution stability, and limits of detection (LOD). l-Phenylalanine and anhydrous cupric sulfate as chiral ligand-exchange complexes were used for separation, isomer identification, related substance investigation, and analysis of fudosteine enantiomers in fudosteine bulk drugs and fudosteine tablets.

Open access

Abstract

Oleogels have been extensively investigated in the food processing in recent years, and they have become one of the healthier alternative. The possibility of constructing oleogel material in a manner similar to hydrocolloid gel has now been gradually becoming a reality. In this regard, this review provides coverage of the latest developments and applications of oleogels in terms of preparation strategies, physicochemical properties, health aspects, and potential food applications. Both solid fat content and crystallisation behaviour are discussed for oleogels fabricated by gelators and under different conditions. Oleogels could replace hydrogenated vegetable oils in food product, reduce the fatty acid content, and be used to prepare food products such as meat, ice-cream, chocolate, bread, and biscuits with desirable properties. The aims were to assess the formation mechanism, construction methods of oleogels and the advance on the application of oleogel structures in the food field, as well as the further exploration of oleogels and in complex food systems in the future.

Open access