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Abstract  

The chemical effects of56Mn-recoils following neutron capture produced in mixed crystals /KMnO4–LiClO4, KMnO4–NaClO4 and KMnO4–KClO4/ have been investigated. A linear increase of initial retention with the mol fraction of perchlorate was observed which is tentatively ascribed to the tendency to form species having structures similar to that of the host matrix. The ultimate chemical fate of the manganese atom also depends on the conditions of the immediate chemical environment of the atoms /e.g. Li, Na, K/ at rest in the crystal. The results are discussed in terms of retention and non-retention reactions invoking a mechanistic model involving metal and ligand-vacancy exchange, substitution and transfer reactions.

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Abstract  

Extraction of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) from ammonium thiocyanate solutions has been studied in benzene in the presence of pyridine. The effect of such variables as the pH of aqueous phase and concentration of metal, thiocyanate and pyridine on extraction has been investigated and the extracting species identified. Extraction behaviour of silver(I), manganese(II), cobalt(II), mercury(II) and thallium(III) has also been studied under identical conditions and some binary metal ion separations of analytical and radiochemical importance are reported.

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The study examined the vegetation composition and phenotypic traits at five sites, differing in degree of disturbance, in a tropical dry deciduous forest of India. A total of 49 species and 4033 individuals (≯= 9.6 cm dbh) were enumerated in the cumulative 15-ha permanently protected area. The study revealed that the five sites represented five more or less different communities (species combinations with different dominants). On the basis of phenotypic traits, these communities or sites could not be discriminated, either by proportion of species belonging to different trait categories or by the cumulative importance value of the trait categories. As a result, disturbance did not affect the predominant traits. Evidently, all the communities shared the major phenotypic traits of the dry deciduous forest. Small leaf size, medium leaf texture, rough bark texture and medium deciduousness characterized the dry deciduous forest vegetation. Both the percent of species and importance values were larger for medium or less deciduous trait categories than for highly deciduous trait, representing a trade-off between water loss and the period of dry matter synthesis.

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The study examined the vegetation composition and phenotypic traits at five sites, differing in degree of disturbance, in a tropical dry deciduous forest of India. A total of 49 species and 4033 individuals (≯= 9.6 cm dbh) were enumerated in the cumulative 15-ha permanently protected area. The study revealed that the five sites represented five more or less different communities (species combinations with different dominants). On the basis of phenotypic traits, these communities or sites could not be discriminated, either by proportion of species belonging to different trait categories or by the cumulative importance value of the trait categories. As a result, disturbance did not affect the predominant traits. Evidently, all the communities shared the major phenotypic traits of the dry deciduous forest. Small leaf size, medium leaf texture, rough bark texture and medium deciduousness characterized the dry deciduous forest vegetation. Both the percent of species and importance values were larger for medium or less deciduous trait categories than for highly deciduous trait, representing a trade-off between water loss and the period of dry matter synthesis.

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One thousand four hundred and eighty three spring wheat germplasm (Triticum aestivum L.) lines comprising Indian as well as exotic lines were screened for resistance to spot blotch disease during winter 2014-15 at hot spot locations i.e., Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and Uttar Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Cooch Behar. Severity of the disease at different stages beginning from tillering to dough stage was recorded. Location Severity Index (LSI) of Varanasi was higher than Cooch Behar. Twenty eight accessions were resistant or highly resistant at both locations. These 28 accessions were validated during the winter season (2015–2016). These germplasm were also evaluated at four environments for agronomic traits. Out of 28 accessions, seven (IC564121, IC529684, IC443669, IC443652, IC529962, IC548325 and EC178071-331) were highly resistant across the locations and over the years of study. These accessions comprised one exotic and six indigenous accessions belonging to Uttarakhand and Haryana. Two lines (IC529962 and IC443652) had higher yield than the best check at all the locations. These lines showing highly resistant reaction alongwith wider adaptability can be expedited for direct cultivation or for the development of high yielding and disease resistant cultivars. These lines can also be used for identification of novel resistance gene using allele mining tools and their deployment for the development of spot blotch resistant cultivars.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: S. Sareen, R. Munjal, N. Singh, B. Singh, R. Verma, B. Meena, J. Shoran, A. Sarial, and S. Singh

Terminal heat, which is referred as increase in temperature during grain filling, is one of the important stress factors for wheat production. Current estimates indicate that wheat crop grown on around 13.5mha in India is affected by heat stress. In order to meet the challenges of high temperature ahead of global warming, concerted efforts are needed to evaluate germplasm for heat tolerance and identify and develop genotypes suitable for such stressed environments. The advanced wheat genotypes developed for stress and normal environments by different research centers were evaluated across 7 locations representing varied agroclimatic zones during 2007–08 and 2008–09 to study their adaptability for heat stress and non-stress environments. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis for G × E interactions revealed differences amongst locations to phenology and grain yield. Genotype RAJ 4083 developed for cultivation under late sown conditions in peninsular zone was also found adaptable to timely sown conditions. Similarly, HD 2733 a cultivar of NEPZ timely sown conditions and PBW 574 an advanced breeding line of NWPZ late sown conditions was found adapted to Peninsular zone. The cultivar RAJ 3765 showed specific adaptability to Pantnagar in NWPZ. Genotype NW 3069 developed for NEPZ timely sown conditions have shown adaptability to number of locations; timely sown conditions at Karnal and Hisar in NWPZ and Niphad in PZ. Likewise, WH 1022 developed for NEPZ late sown conditions exhibited specific adaptability to all timely sown locations in NWPZ.

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The free and agar immobilized cells of Nocardia globerula NHB-2 having nitrilase (EC 3.5.5.1) activity were used to catalyse the transformation of benzonitrile to benzoic acid. The whole cells of N. globerula NHB-2 were immobilized in agar which exhibited maximum conversion of benzonitrile to benzoic acid in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.5 (free cells) 8.0 (immobilized cells), temperature 40 °C, cells 2 mg dcm ml −1 reaction mixture and benzonitrile (4% v/v) in 4 h (free cells). The effect of temperature on the stability of nitrilase was studied and cells retained 100% activity at 30 °C and lost 50% activity at 40 °C. In a fed batch mode of reaction 108 and 84 gl −1 benzoic acid was produced using free and agar entrapped cells (2 g dcm). The agar immobilized cells were recycled up to three times and 80, 62, 20 gl −1 benzoic acid was again produced respectively in each of three cycles and a total 244 g benzoic acid was produced by recycling the same mass of immobilized biocatalyst.

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Abstract  

Extraction of U(VI) from HNO3, HCl and HClO4 media using cyanex-272 (bis[2,4,4 trimethyl pentyl] phosphinic acid)/n-dodecane has been carried out. In the case of HNO3 and HClO4 media, the distribution ratio (D) value first decreases and then increases, whereas from HCl medium it first decreases and then remains constant with increase in H+ ion concentration. At lower acidities, U(VI) was extracted as UO2(HA2)2 by an ion exchange mechanism, whereas at higher acidities as UO2(NO3)2 .2(H2A2) following a solvation mechanism. The D for U(VI) by cyanex-272, PC-88A and DEHPA at low acidities follows the order cyanex-272 > PC-88A > DEHPA. Also, cyanex-272 was found to extract U(VI) more efficiently than TBP at 2M HNO3. The effect of diluents on the extraction of U(VI) by cyanex-272 followed the order cyclohexane > n-dodecane > CCl4 > benzene. The loading of U(VI) into cyanex-272/n-dodecane from 2M HNO3 has shown that at saturation point, cyanex-272 was 78% loaded. No third phase was observed at the saturation level. The stripping of U(VI) from the loaded organic phase was not possible with water, it was poor with acetic acid and sodium acetate but quantitative with oxalic acid, ammonium carbonate and sodium carbonate.

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Abstract  

Partitioning of plutonium from uranium is an important step in the reprocessing of spent fuel by PUREX process of solvent extraction using 30% TBP-dodecane. This is achieved by selectively reducing the Pu in solution to least extractable trivalent state by uranous nitrate as the reductant. The latter is conventionally produced by electrolytic reduction of uranyl ion in presence of hydrazine nitrate as uranous nitrate stabilizer using Pt-coated titanium as the anode. The anode plating wears out after period of operation thus affecting the process efficiency and hence the quality control testing of platinum plated electrode becomes important. This article describes the use of Beta backscattering method with strontium-90 radioisotope as non-destructive testing tool for measuring the coating thickness of the sample Ti electrode. The surface characteristics and coating morphology were also examined by scanning electron microscope and the micrographs are presented.

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Abstract  

Solvent extraction of U(VI) with di-isodecyl phosphoric acid (DIDPA)/dodecane from nitric acid medium has been investigated for a wide range of experimental conditions. Effect of various parameters including nitric acid concentration, DIDPA concentration, temperature, stripping agents, and other impurities like rear earths, transition metal ion, boron, aluminum ion on U(VI) extraction has been studied. The species extracted in the organic phase is found to be UO2(NO3)(HA2)·H2A2 at lower acidity (<3.0 M HNO3). Increase in temperature lead to the decrease in extraction with the enthalpy change by ∆H = −16.27 kJ/mol. Enhancement in extraction of U(VI) from nitric acid medium was observed with the mixture of DIDPA and tri butyl phosphate (TBP). The stripping of U(VI) from organic phase (DIDPA–U(VI)/dodecane) with various reagents followed the order: 4 M H2SO4 > 5% (NH4)2CO3 > 8 M HCl > 8 M HNO3 > Water. High separation factors between U(VI) and impurities suggested that the use of DIDPA for purification of uranium from multi elements bearing solution.

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