Authors:Jei-Kwon Moon, Ki-Wook Kim, Chong-Hun Jung, Yong-Gun Shul, and Eil-Hee Lee
Composite ion exchanger beads were prepared to remove the strontium and silver ions in acidic solution. Potassium titanate and nickelferrocyanate powder, which are acid resistant inorganic ion exchangers were synthesized and then mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) binder to form a PAN-potassium titanate and a PAN-nickelferrocyanate composite ion exchanger beads. Spherical composite beads could be obtained by adjusting the viscosities of the composite dope in the range of 700–1000 cP. The composite beads porosities such as macropore volume and pore size were increased in proportion to the contents of PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) which was used as the porosity modifying chemical. The synthesized composite ion exchangers were evaluated on their adsorption characteristics for the Ag1 and Sr21 ion solutions of pH 2.
Authors:Gye-Nam Kim, Hye-Min Park, Wang-Kyu Choi, and Jei-Kwon Moon
For the disposal of a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) glass filter into the environment, the glass fiber should be
leached to lower its radioactive concentration to the clearance level. To derive an optimum method for the removal of uranium
series from a HEPA glass fiber, five methods were applied in this study. That is, chemical leaching by a 4.0 M HNO3–0.1 M Ce(IV) solution, chemical leaching by a 5 wt% NaOH solution, chemical leaching by a 0.5 M H2O2–1.0 M Na2CO3 solution, chemical consecutive chemical leaching by a 4.0 M HNO3 solution, and repeated chemical leaching by a 4.0 M HNO3 solution were used to remove the uranium series. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 226Ra, and 234Th in glass after leaching for 5 h by the 4.0 M HNO3–0.1 M Ce(IV) solution were 2.1, 0.3, 1.1, and 1.2 Bq/g. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 226Ra, and 234Th in glass after leaching for 36 h by 4.0 M HNO3–0.1 M Ce(IV) solution were 76.9, 3.4, 63.7, and 71.9 Bq/g. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 226Ra, and 234Th in glass after leaching for 8 h by a 0.5 M H2O2–1.0 M Na2CO3 solution were 8.9, 0.0, 1.91, and 6.4 Bq/g. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 226Ra, and 234Th in glass after consecutive leaching for 8 h by the 4.0 M HNO3 solution were 2.08, 0.12, 1.55, and 2.0 Bq/g. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 226Ra, and 234Th in glass after three repetitions of leaching for 3 h by the 4.0 M HNO3 solution were 0.02, 0.02, 0.29, and 0.26 Bq/g. Meanwhile, the removal efficiencies of 238U, 235U, 226Ra, and 234Th from the waste solution after its precipitation–filtration treatment with NaOH and alum for reuse of the 4.0 M HNO3 waste solution were 100, 100, 93.3, and 100%.
A study on the electrosorption of uranium (U(VI)) ions onto a porous activated carbon fiber was performed to treat lagoon
sludge containing 100 mg/L uranium and high concentration of chemical salts composed 3.8% NaNO3, 19.8% NH4NO3, 1.9% Ca(NO3)2. The applied negative potential increased the adsorption kinetics and capacity in comparison to the open-circuit potential
adsorption for uranium ions. When applying potential at −0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and pH 4, above 99% of the uranium is selectively
removed from the 100 mg/L influent by electrosorption, and the cumulative amount of uranium for 50 h is about 600 mguranium/gACF. The high selectivity of elctrosorption process for uranium was probably caused by the difference of charge density of cations.
More than 99% of adsorbed uranium ions was desorbed at a potential of +1.2 V and pH 3. The electrosorption of uranium onto
the porous activated carbon fiber electrode is due to an ion exchange type reaction between the uranium ions and surface acid
groups on carbon surface. Cyclic electrosorption test consisting of adsorption and desorption step shows that the activated
carbon fiber electrode is easily regenerated in situ, indicating it is a reversible process.
Authors:Gye-Nam Kim, Suk-Chol Lee, Dong-Bin Shon, Hye-Min Park, Wang-Kyu Choi, and Jei-Kwon Moon
For the disposal of the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) glass filter to environment, the glass fiber should be leached
to lower its radioactive concentration. To derive the optimum method for removal of Co and Cs from HEPA glass fiber, four
methods were applied in this study. Results of electrochemical leaching of glass fiber by 4.0 M HNO3–0.1 M Ce(IV) solution showed that the removal efficiency of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Cs from glass fiber after 5 h was 96.4, 93.6, and 93.8%, respectively. Results by 5 wt% NaOH solution showed that the removal
efficiency of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Cs after 30 h was 81.7, 82.1, and 10.0%, respectively. Results by repeat 2.0 M HNO3 solution showed that the removal efficiencies of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Cs after 2 h of three repetitions were 96.2, 99.4, and 99.1%, respectively. Finally, results by repeat 4.0 M HNO3 solution showed that the removal efficiencies of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Cs after 4 h of three repetitions were 100, 99.9, and 99.9%, respectively, and their radioactivities were below 0.1 Bq/g.
Therefore, the chemical leaching method by 4.0 M HNO3 solution was considered as an optimum one for removal of cesium and cobalt from HEPA glass fiber for self disposal. Also
the removal efficiencies of 60Co, 134Cs, and 137Cs from the waste-solution after its precipitation-filtration treatment for reuse of 4.0 M HNO3 waste-solution were 88.0, 95.0, and 99.8%.
Type 304 stainless steel specimens artificially contaminated with CsCl solution were treated with KOH solution and KNO3 solution, respectively. Cs+ ion removal tests by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm at a given fluence of 57.3 J/cm2 were performed. The surface morphology and the relative atomic mole ratio of the specimen surface were investigated by SEM
and EPMA. The order of Cs+ ion removal efficiency of laser was no-treatment < KOH < KNO3 during the 42 shots. From the investigation of XPS peaks around 532.7 and 292.9 eV, KNO3 on a surface of specimen was found to be fully decomposed during the laser irradiation. It was suggested that Cs2O particulates formed by the reaction between the reactive oxygen generated from the nitrate ion and Cs+ ion on the metal surface could be easily suspended. For the KOH system, FeOOH was formed during the laser irradiation and
it changed into Fe2O3. It was also suggested that Cs2O particulates were formed by the reaction between the reactive oxygen generated from the decomposition of K2O and Cs+ ion on the metal surface..
Authors:Kwang-Wook Kim, Jae-Won Lee, Dong-Young Chung, Eil-Hee Lee, Kweon-Ho Kang, Kune-Woo Lee, Kee-Chan Song, Myung-June Yoo, Geun-Il Park, and Jei-Kwon Moon
This work studied a way to reclaim uranium from contaminated UO2 oxide scraps as a sinterable UO2 powder for UO2 fuel pellet fabrication, which included a dissolution of the uranium oxide scraps in a carbonate solution with hydrogen peroxide
and a UO4 precipitation step. Dissolution characteristics of reduced and oxidized uranium oxides were evaluated in a carbonate solution
with hydrogen peroxide, and the UO4 precipitation were confirmed by acidification of uranyl peroxo–carbonate complex solution. An agglomerated UO4 powder obtained by the dissolution and precipitation of uranium in the carbonate solution could not be pulverized into fine
UO2 powder by the OREOX process, because of submicron-sized individual UO4 particles forming the agglomerated UO4 precipitate. The UO2 powder prepared from the UO4 precipitate could meet the UO2 powder specifications for UO2 fuel pellet fabrication by a series of steps such as dehydration of UO4 precipitate, reduction, and milling. The sinterability of the reclaimed UO2 powder for fuel pellet fabrication was improved by adding virgin UO2 powder in the reclaimed UO2 powder. A process to reclaim the contaminated uranium scraps as UO2 fuel powder using a carbonate solution was finally suggested.