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  • Author or Editor: Jenő Reiczigel x
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Twenty-two serum samples of healthy bitches were tested with the frozen and lyophilised version of the same ELISA kit (Quanticheck, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Budapest, Hungary). Samples were chosen on the basis of their progesterone (P4) concentrations, which were between 1.00 and 20.00 ng/mL. As it is well known, this range has the highest clinical relevance in ovulation diagnosis. Both types of microplates were read at 15-min intervals from the 15th until the 90th minute (min) of incubation, and the results were compared with those of frozen plates at 60 min of incubation as 100 percent. Lyophilised microplates gave on average 18 percent higher results than the frozen version at equal incubation times. The highest difference between lyophilised and frozen samples was observed at 45 and 60 min of incubation. Ninety-four percent of the reaction in the frozen microplate occurred in the first 15 min, and during the subsequent 30 min the reaction seemingly stopped. After the 45th min of incubation, this 94 percent increased to 108 percent in the subsequent 30 min, which remained the final approximate result at the end of the 90 min of incubation. In contrast to the frozen microplate, the measured concentration increased continuously in the lyophilised version and reached the highest level at the 60th min. The results of the lyophilised microplate reached the same level at 30 min of incubation as those of the frozen version at 60 min. In conclusion, a mechanical increase or decrease of the incubation time does not generate a linear change in the test results. This study demonstrated that the results of a series of samples collected from the same bitch cannot be compared if they are measured with different laboratory methods or different ELISA kits.

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The aim of the study was to establish normal reference echocardiographic values for three Hungarian dog breeds, and to determine the potential dependence of intracardiac parameters on body weight, age and gender. M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography were performed on 95 clinically healthy dogs including 45 Hungarian Vizslas, 28 Mudis and 22 Hungarian Greyhounds. Linear intracardiac measurements included interventricular septal thickness (IVS), left ventricular internal diameter (LVID), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPW) both in systole and diastole, as well as left atrial internal diameter (LAD), and aortic diameter (AOD) in early diastole. Fractional shortening (FS), end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes (EDV and ESV), as well as LAD:AOD ratio were calculated from the linear parameters. Mean, range and standard deviation of measurements were calculated for each breed. Body weight positively correlated in all three breeds with all left ventricular dimensions, such as IVS d , IVS s , LVID d , LVIDD s , LVPW d and LVPW s parameters. LA values showed positive correlations to body weight in all three breeds. AOD and LA demonstrated a positive correlation with body weight in Hungarian Vizslas and Mudis, whilst the LAD:AOD ratio was related to body weight only in Mudis. Gender did not correlate with any of the measured echocardiographic parameters in any breeds. In Mudis, a positive correlation was found between the LAD:AOD ratio and age, as well as between the LAD:AOD ratio and E point to septal separation (EPSS).

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Ágnes Sterczer, Jenő Reiczigel, Roland Psáder, Kinga Pápa, Károly Vörös and Ákos Pap

The efficacy of ultrasound-guided cholagogue-induced gallbladder emptying for differentiating obstructive from non-obstructive hepatobiliary diseases was studied in icteric dogs. In 7 healthy Beagle dogs, Lipofundin 20% infusion (2 ml/kg orally) evoked a vigorous gallbladder contraction of 44.2% (range: 35.3–57.6%) and proved to be a useful, well-tolerable meal for routine use. In 24 icteric dogs, gallbladder contraction was evoked by different cholagogues: the maximum reduction in gallbladder volume (%) for the three non-obstructive icteric dogs was 43.9% (range, 39.0–46.5%). The average gallbladder contraction of the 21 dogs with biliary obstruction was less than 5%. In conclusion, the stimulation of gallbladder contraction with orally applied magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) or Lipofundin can be well demonstrated by ultrasound in dogs. The examination of cholagogue-induced gallbladder emptying is a valuable technique in icteric patients to indicate surgical intervention.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Viktória Szilvási, Károly Vörös, Ferenc Manczur, Jenő Reiczigel, István Novák, Ákos Máthé and Dániel Fekete

The objective of this study was to compare the auscultatory findings using traditional and electronic sensor-based stethoscopes. Thirty-three adult healthy Beagles (20 females, 13 males, mean age: 4.8 years, range 1.4–8 years) were auscultated by four investigators with different experiences (INVEST-1, -2, -3 and -4) independently with both stethoscopes. Final cardiological diagnoses were established by echocardiography. Mitral murmurs were heard with both stethoscopes by all investigators and echocardiography revealed mild mitral valve insufficiency in 7 dogs (21%, 4 females, 3 males). The statistical sensitivity (Se) in recognising cardiac murmurs proved to be 82% using the traditional stethoscope and 75% using the electronic one in the mean of the four examiners, whilst statistical specificity (Sp) was 99% by the traditional and 100% by the electronic stethoscope. The means of the auscultatory sensitivity differences between the two stethoscopes were 0.36 on the left and 0.59 on the right hemithorax, demonstrating an advantage for the electronic stethoscope being more obvious above the right hemithorax (P = 0.0340). The electronic stethoscope proved to be superior to the traditional one in excluding cardiac murmurs and especially in auscultation over the right hemithorax. Mitral valve disease was relatively common in this clinically healthy research Beagle population.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Zoltán Dudás-Györki, Boglárka Bende, Csaba Hetyey, Ferenc Manczur, Jenő Reiczigel and Károly Vörös

The aim of the present study was to verify the validity of two-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) measurement technique in dogs with left atrial enlargement. Thirty-one dogs with clinically and echocardiographically proven cardiac diseases were randomly selected. The left atrial right-to-left diameter ( La r−l ) and the diameter of the left atrium just above the mitral annulus ( La ama ) as well as the ratio of left atrial to aortic diameter ( La/Ao ) were measured by 2DE. The La r−l / La ama ratio was independent of body weight (R 2 = 0.0006) and age (R 2 = 0.0012), respectively. A significant linear relationship was found between La ama and La/Ao (the ratio that expresses the severity of atrial enlargement): La ama = 1.2238 La/Ao + 1.1608 (R 2 = 021; P < 0.01). There was also a positive linear relationship between La r−l and La/Ao : La r−l = 1.6876 La/Ao + 1.2648 (R 2 = 0.27; P < 0.005). In our dogs with cardiac disease, the La r−l / La ama ratio showed no significant relation to the La/Ao index (R 2 = 0.028). Thus, La r−l / La ama proved to be independent of the severity of atrial enlargement. Based on the strong relationship stated in the equation between La ama and La r−l [ La r−l / La ama = 1.31159 (95% confidence interval)], La ama can also be used for the assessment of left atrial size even in dogs with cardiac disease.

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Primiparous and multiparous lactating crossbred dairy cows (after Day 40 postpartum) with a mature corpus luteum (CL) (diameter of ≥ 17 mm determined by ultrasonography) and having a follicle with a diameter of ≥ 10 mm were treated with natural prostaglandin F (n = 80). Those from the cows that showed oestrus within 5 days after treatment were inseminated (Group 1: n = 39). Other group of cows showing oestrus without treatment (Group 2: n = 41) were inseminated and served as controls. The ovaries of each cow were scanned by transrectal ultrasonography from the day of detected oestrus (Day −1p.m.) until ovulation, to measure the changes in the areas of the CL and the largest follicle and to determine the occurrence of ovulation. Although no significant differences were found between the treated and untreated cows in terms of a reduction in the area of the corpora lutea and of an increase in the area of the dominant follicles, the mean area of these follicles in Group 2 was somewhat greater than in Group 1. The highest conception rate was achieved if AI was performed at the same day as ovulation occurred in both groups (conception rate in treated group was: 62.5%, in untreated group: 66.6%, respectively) between Day 0a.m. to Day 0p.m.. In Group 1, 54.5% conception rate has been achieved if ovulation occurred between Day 0p.m. to Day 1p.m., or 50% between Day 1p.m. to Day 2p.m. after AI, and 53.3% and 44.4% in Group 2, respectively. The conception rate for cows that ovulated before AI in Group 2 was 25%. No ovulation occurred in 7 cows until Day 2p.m. after AI and none of them became pregnant. The overall conception rate was approximately 50% in both groups, but when the cows had ovulated too early or too late relative to the time of AI, the conception rate was significantly lower, thus determination of the optimal time for AI is of great practical importance in dairy herds.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Károly Vörös, Ingo Nolte, Stephan Hungerbühler, Jenő Reiczigel, Jan Ehlers, Guy Tater, Reinhard Mischke, Tanja Zimmering and Matthias Schneider

The goals of this study were to present a technique of digitalised sound recordings and phonocardiograms (dPCGs), and to analyse its diagnostic capabilities. Heart sounds of 20 dogs were auscultated in vivo (on-line) and recorded with dPCGs by two authors using a Welch Allyn Meditron Stethoscope System. Sound recordings were auscultated off-line and blindly by four different observers having various auscultatory experiences, then listened to while viewing dPCGs. The results were compared to echocardiographic diagnoses. There was a significant agreement (p < 0.001) between on-line and off-line auscultatory findings regarding the four observers, ranging from 45% to 75% (weighted kappa values: 0.72 to 0.87). The best agreement was achieved by Observer 1 having the highest experience. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between Observer 1 and Observer 4 (with the lowest experience) in judging the quality of the murmurs during the off-line and blind auscultation. However, there were only minimal differences (95% to 100% agreements) in dPCG analyses among the four observers regarding intensity and quality of the murmurs while simultaneously listening to and viewing the dPCGs. Significant correlations were found between the traditional ‘0 to 6 scale’ and a new ‘0 to 3 scale’ murmur intensity gradings by all observers (correlation coefficients 0.640 to 0.908; p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Analysis of dPCGs might be a valuable, additional tool helping with the diagnosis of canine cardiac murmurs, especially for those with less cardiological experience.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Károly Vörös, Viktória Szilvási, Ferenc Manczur, Ákos Máthé, Jenő Reiczigel, Ingo Nolte and Stephan Hungerbühler

Chronic degenerative valve disease (CDVD) is the most common cardiac disease in dogs, usually resulting in mitral valve insufficiency (MVI). The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MVI in clinically healthy Beagle populations. A total of 79 adult healthy Beagles (41 females and 38 males; age: 5.6 ± 2.7 years, range 1.4 to 11.7 years) were examined. The diagnosis of MVI was based on the detection of a systolic murmur heard above the mitral valve, and was confirmed by colour flow Doppler (CFD) echocardiography. Systolic mitral valve murmurs were detected in 20/79 dogs (25.3%), of them 11 males and 9 females with no statistically significant gender difference (P = 0.6059). The strength of the murmur on the semi-quantitative 0/6 scale yielded intensity grade 1/6 in 10 dogs, grade 2/6 in 4 dogs, and grade 3/6 in 6 dogs. Mild to moderate MVI was detected by CFD in all these 20 dogs with systolic murmurs. Of them, 17 dogs had mild and 3 demonstrated moderate MVI, showing 10–30% and 30–50% regurgitant jets compared to the size of the left atrium, respectively. The age of dogs with MVI was 7.1 ± 2.3 years, which was significantly different from that of dogs without MVI (5.1 ± 2.7 years, P = 0.0029). No significant differences in body weight (P = 0.1724) were found between dogs with MVI (13.8 ± 2.8 kg) and those without MVI (12.8 ± 3.0 kg). Mitral valve disease causing MVI is relatively common in Beagle dogs, just like in other small breed dogs reported in the literature.

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