Authors:Jian Feng, Wei Xiong, Yun Jia, Jinbo Wang, Derong Liu and Ruixiang Qin
The hydrogenation of biomass-derived ethyl lactate was studied over several ruthenium catalysts (Ru/TiO2, Ru/SiO2, Ru/γ-Al2O3, Ru/NaY and Ru/C), with the intent of developing a simple and additive-free catalytic system. The catalytic performance is dependent on the nature of the support. Ru/SiO2 was found to be an efficient catalyst for the hydrogenation of ethyl lactate to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO). Parametric studies show that the reaction temperature, hydrogen pressure and catalyst amount can significantly influence the catalytic performance. Under optimal reaction conditions (433 K, 5 MPa), high yield of 1,2-PDO (82.1%) was obtained without the introduction of any additives. Form a practical point of view, this study may open the way to a new approach for the production of 1,2-PDO.
Authors:Chuanfu Chen, Kai Sun, Gang Wu, Qiong Tang, Jian Qin, Kuei Chiu, Yushuang Fu, Xiaofang Wang and Jing Liu
The quality and credibility of Internet resources has been a concern in scholarly communication. This paper reports a quantitative
analysis of the use of Internet resources in journal articles and addresses the concerns for the use of Internet resources
scholarly journals articles. We collected the references listed in 35,698 articles from 14 journals published during 1996
to 2005, which resulted in 1,000,724 citations. The citation data was divided into two groups: traditional citations and Web
citations, and examined based on frequencies of occurrences by domain and type of Web citation sources. The findings included:
(1) The number of Web citations in the journals investigated had been increasing steadily, though the quantity was too small
to draw an inclusive conclusion on the data about their impact on scientific research; (2) A great disparity existed among
different disciplines in terms of using information on the Web. Applied disciplines and interdisciplinary sciences tended
to cite more information on the Web, while classical and experimental disciplines cited little of Web information; (3) The
frequency of citations was related to the reputation of the author or the institution issuing the information, and not to
the domain or webpage types; and (4) The researchers seemed to lack confidence in Internet resources, and Web information
was not as frequently cited as reported in some publications before. The paper also discusses the need for developing a guideline
system to evaluate Web resources regarding their authority and quality that lies in the core of credibility of Web information.