The patents of China in biotechnology in the United States Patent and Trademark Office during 1995–2008 have been analyzed in this paper with the help of bibliometrics and social network analysis techniques. The analysis has been carried out from several perspectives including total patent output of industries, universities and public research institutes (PRIs) and their positions in the knowledge network, the main innovators and their interactions, the collaboration among Chinese regions and the collaborations from abroad. The results show that though with some improvements, the patent performance of Chinese organizations and regions in biotechnology still need to be improved. The connections between Chinese innovators are not very cohesive and they depend heavily on foreign knowledge, especial knowledge from U.S. multinational firms and universities. The important innovators of China in this field are mainly PRIs and universities. More and stronger firm innovators, especially large and powerful multinational companies, are strongly needed for the nation's biotechnology industry.
In this paper we compare the scientific research in the semiconductor-related field in China with some other major nations
in Asia. It is based on the bibliometric information from SCI-Expanded database during the time period of 1995–2004. We show
that China has been developing fast in semiconductor research, and become the second productive country in Asia as reflected
by the publication profile. The evidences indicate a significant increasing trend in the research efforts and readership among
Asian countries. Similar to the scientists in Japan and South Korea, Chinese scientists were more inclined to work in larger
groups, typically 4 or more authors. The assessment of research quality is further conducted based on citation-based measures.
As benchmarks, two western countries, namely USA and Germany, have been compared in the citation analysis. It is revealed
that the impacts of research outputs in the Asian countries, except for Japan, have been badly incommensurate with their devoted
research efforts compared with USA and Germany. Like most of other Asian countries the research results of Chinese scientists
in semiconductor have a low international visibility despite their strong research efforts and increasingly large domestic
readership. The application of Leimkuhler curve illustrates vividly the inequality of citation times among the compared countries.
Furthermore, the Gini Indices of each country and each pair of countries are calculated which illustrates again the inequality
of informetric productivities.
We propose an improved Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to evaluate the efficiency of research groups in the area of information science in PR China. By taking the research groups as Decision Making Units (DMUs), the budget of the projects and size of the groups as inputs and the quantity and quality of publications produced by the groups as outputs of the model, the relative efficiencies of 21 research projects are evaluated. Then, we move to focus on the issues of knowledge management of the organizations that undertook these projects and attempt to explore the underlying reasons of high research efficiency. Through integrating the evaluation outcomes into research process, three indicators of knowledge management are identified for the best practice groups with highest research efficiency. The findings verify that the proposed model is valid and practical to assess research performances on the basis of bibliometric indicators.
The paper compares the research performance in computer science of four major Western countries, India and China, based on
the data abstracted from INSPEC database during the period 1993–2002. A total of 9,632 computer science papers recorded in
INSPEC database were used for the comparison. The findings indicate that, on the one hand, the number of papers produced in
China has considerably increased in the past few years. Particularly, in recent years, China occupies a remarkable high position
in terms of counts of papers indexed by the INSPEC database. On the other hand, Chinese scientists preferred to publish in
domestic journals and proceedings and shares of SCI-papers to the total journal papers for China have still remained the lowest.
This indicates that the research activities of Chinese scientists in computer science are still rather “local” and suffer
from a low international visibility. Various scientometric indicators, such as Normalized Impact Factor, ratio of papers in
high quality journals are further adopted to analyze research performance and diverse finding are obtained. Nevertheless,
for these surrogate indicators, China has optimistically achieved great progress, characterized with “low level of beginning
and high speed of developing”. The policy implication of the findings lies in that China, as well as other less developed
countries in science, can earn relative competitive advantages in some new emerging or younger disciplines such as computer
science by properly using catch-up strategy.
This study develops and tests an integrated conceptual model of basic research evaluation from a varying perspective. The
main objective is to obtain a more complete understanding of the external factors affecting the publicly fund basic research
in a country. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with Partial Least Squares (PLS) is used to test the conceptual model with
empirical data collected from WCY (World Competitiveness Yearbook) and ESI (Essential Science Indicators) database. Interrelationships
among the research output and outcome, together with three external factors (resource, impetus, accumulative advantage) have
been successfully explored and the conceptual model of journal evaluation has been examined.
This paper explores the relationship between patenting and publishing in the field of nanotechnology for Chinese universities.
With their growing patents, Chinese universities are becoming main technological source for nanotechnology development that
is extremely important in China. Matching names of patentees to names of research paper authors in Chinese universities, we
find 6,321 authors with patents, i.e. inventor–authors, and 65,001 without any patent. Research performance is measured using
three indicators—publication counts, total citations and h-index received by each researcher. It is found that research performance of authors who are also inventors holding patents
is better than that of those authors who do not have a patent, and that most of high quality research is performed by inventor–authors.
Our findings indicate that patent-oriented research may produce better results.
This paper proposes a novel methodological framework for effectively measuring the production frontier performance (PFP) of
macro-scale (regional or national) R&D activities themselves associated with two improved models: a non-radial data envelopment
analysis (DEA) model and a nonradial Malmquist index. In particular, the framework can provide multidimensional information
to benchmark various R&D efficiency indexes (i.e., technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency) as
well as the total factor R&D productivity change (determined by three components: “catch-up” of R&D efficiency, “frontier
shift” of R&D technology as well as “exploitation” of R&D scale economics effect) at a comparable production frontier. It
can be used to not only investigate the potential and sustainable capacity of innovation but also screen and finance R&D projects
at the regional or national level. We have applied the framework to a province-level panel dataset on R&D activities of 30
selected Chinese provinces.
Nanobiopharmaceuticals is a hopeful research domain from recent scientific advances with massive marketable potential. Although some researchers have studied international collaboration from some aspects, few articles are as comprehensive as this article to consider international cooperation from so many different aspects. We lay more emphasis on international collaboration in the field of nanobiopharmaceuticals involving China. Incremental citation impact values show that in order to move forward and improve the overall competitiveness in the field, China requires to carry out more international collaboration in the field, especially with USA, Germany, and England. Startlingly, multinational collaboration does not sway Chinese citation impact as much as we anticipate in the field. China has reached the first rank in the world in terms of publication amount per year in the field in 2009. Few papers about international collaboration compare small world phenomenon. We use small world quotient to find that it is important for Chinese international co-authors to strengthen to cultivate a cooperation networks in which a node's partners are also buddies to each other.
Despite the extensive studies conducted in the field of nanotechnology based on US patent data, the choice of a single database may impede a wider view of this technology frontier. Based on patent data from the Derwent Innovation Index database that covers the data of 41 major patent offices, we review the development of nanotechnology patenting from the dimensions of patenting authority and technological classification. We find that a small number of countries dominating the technology have similar technological diversity in terms of nanotechnology patents. After the discussion and summary of the citation modes and citation rate curve, we construct the patent citation networks at the patent document level and discuss the distinctive transnational citation patterns. We then use Search Path Count Method to extract the technological trajectory, where we find very high selectiveness. In the final section of this paper, we discover the small world phenomenon in the citation networks, which is widely investigated in undirected networks such as co-authorship networks, but rarely touched in citation networks due to the limitations of the presumptions. We propose the reachable path length and citation clustering in the revised small world model for acyclic directed networks and provide the realistic meaning of the new measures.
This paper introduces a diffusion network model: an individual-citation-based directed network model with a time dimension, as a potentially useful approach to capture the diffusion of research topics. The approach combines social network analysis, network visualization and citation analysis to discuss some of the issues concerning the spread of scientific ideas. The process of knowledge diffusion is traced from a network point of view. Using research on the h-index as a case study, we built detailed networks of individual publications and demonstrated the feasibility of applying the diffusion network model to the spread of a research. The model shows the specific paths and associations of individual papers, and potentially complementing issues raised by epidemic models, which primarily deal with average properties of entire scientific communities. Also, based on the citation-based network, the technique of main path analysis identified the articles that influenced the research for some time and linked them into a research tradition that is the backbone of the h-index field.