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  • Author or Editor: Jie Wei x
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Abstract  

The synergistic extraction of uranium(VI) from hydrochloric acid solution with five chelating agents: 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoylpyrazolone-5 (PMBP), 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-acetylpyrazolone-5 (PMAP), 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(2-chlorobenzoyl)pyrazolone-5 (PMCBP), 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(p-nitrobenzoyl)pyrazolone-5 (PMNBP) and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-trifluoroacetylpyrazolone-5 (PMTFP) plus the neutral extractants tributylphosphate (TBP), dioctyl sulfoxide (DOSO) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in chloroform has been investigated. The extraction coefficients have been found to be greater for such mixtures than the individual component. The formulas of the extracted species have been determined to be UO2A2B (where HA = chelating agent, B = neutral extractant). Extraction power of these chelating agents increases as follows: PMCBP>PMNBP>PMTFP=PMBP>PMAP. Synergistic extraction power of the neutral extractants increases as follows: TOPO>DOSO>TBP. The extraction equilibrium constants have been calculated. The mechanism of the synergistic extraction and possible structure of the extracted species are discussed.

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Abstract  

The synergistic extractions of uranium(VI) from hydrochloric acid solution and sulfuric acid solution with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-pyrazolone-5 (PMCBP) together with the neutral extractants: tributyl phosphate(TBP), di-octyl sulfoxide(DOSO) and trioctylphosphine oxide(TOPO) in chloroform have been investigated. A high synergistic extraction effect was found. The formulas of the extracted species have been shown to be UO2A2B (where A=PMCBP, B=neutral extractant). The synergistic extraction power increases as follows: PMCBP-TOPO>PMCBP-DOSO>PMCBP-TBP. The equilibrium constants have been calculated. Models for the extraction mechanism are also discussed.

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Abstract  

Laser-induced optical fiber fluorimetry has been first used to analyze uranium(VI) concentration in the kinetic studies on the extraction of uranium(VI) between 0.5 mol/l H3PO4 solution and HDEHP-cyclohexane system with a Lewis cell. The effects of stirring speed, temperature and concentrations of uranium(VI) and HDEHP on the rate of extraction were examined. These data show that the extraction rate of uranium(VI) in this system is controlled by the chemical reaction at the interface. The rate equations and the rate constants of forward and reverse extraction are obtained. The mechanism of the extraction is discussed.

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Abstract  

A laser-induced optical fiber fluorimetry has been reported for the analysis of ultralow level of uranium. The fluorescence spectrometer includes five major components: a pulsed nitrogen laser, optical fibers, an optrode, a detector, and a boxcar. The fluorescence intensity of uranyl ions is linear with respect to the concentration of uranium. The detection limit of uranium in 1M phosphoric acid is 24 ppb. This technique can be used for the remote, on-line measurement of low level uranium.

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Abstract  

Batch sorption experiments were performed to remove Eu(III) ions from aqueous solutions by using attapulgite under ambient conditions. Different experimental conditions, such as contact time, solid content, foreign ions, pH, ionic strength, fulvic acid and temperature, have been investigated to study their effect on the sorption property. The results indicated that the sorption of Eu(III) onto attapulgite was strongly dependent on pH, ionic strength and temperature. The sorption increased from about 8.9 to 90% at pH ranging from 2 to 6 in 0.01 mol/L NaNO3 solution. The Eu(III) kinetic sorption on attapulgite was fitted by the pseudo-second-order model better than by the pseudo-first-order model. The sorption of Eu(III) onto attapulgite increased with increasing temperature and decreasing ionic strength. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms, and the results indicated that the Freundlich model simulated the data better than the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters (∆G o, ∆S o, ∆H o) were determined from the temperature dependent isotherms at 298.15, 318.15 and 338.15 K, and the results indicated that the sorption reaction was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The results suggest that the attapulgite is a suitable material as an adsorbent for preconcentration and immobilization of Eu(III) from aqueous solutions.

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Abstract  

Polyether-urethane samples were irradiated at the dose range from 10 to 2000 kGy by 2 MeV electron beams. Volatile species from the polymer degradation were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively with GC/MS. Thermal properties and micro-phase separation of the samples were examined by TG and the morphology was studied by TEM and SEM. The results show that the irradiated polyether-polyurethane evolves CO2, H2, CH4 and C2H6, etc. The thermal stabilities between the hard and soft segments in the irradiated samples are different. At high doses, the phase separation in the sample is predominant and the hard segment of sample is more stable. The dose rate affects the soft segment of the irradiated sample much more.

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A sensitive and effective method based on a modified QuECHERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method for the determination of polyoxin B in cucumber and soil using liquid chromatography tandem–mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was developed and validated. Samples were extracted using 1% formic acid in ultrapure water and purified via reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-dSPE) using C18. Recovery of polyoxin B ranged from 83.0% to 112.1% with relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 5) of 3.0–5.2%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) and the limit of detection (LOD) were 0.01 and 0.003 mg/kg for cucumber and soil, respectively. The method was subsequently applied for real sample analysis. The dissipation experiments showed that half-lives of polyoxin B in cucumber and soil were 2.5–5.0 days. The terminal residues of polyoxin B at preharvest intervals (PHIs) of 3 days and 5 days in cucumber were less than 0.05 mg/kg. We therefore suggest that the developed method can be extrapolated to other agricultural crops or food for routine analysis. It also can be used to determine the PHIs. Moreover, these results will aid in establishing the maximum residue limit (MRL) for cucumber in China.

Open access

Abstract

A modified QuEChERS method using a GC-ECD to determine the multiple residues of pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole, dimethomorph and azoxystrobin and to indirectly determine the total residues of maneb, mancozeb and propineb by a GC-FPD (with an S filter) was established and validated. Meanwhile, field trials were conducted in accordance with good agricultural practice (GAP) to study their characteristics of residue degradation under the agricultural climate and cropping system of Guangxi Province. The separation effect of each target peak was good with a linearity range of 0.01–5 mg L−1, a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.003–0.015 mg kg−1 and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01–0.05 mg kg−1. The average recovery ranges of vegetable tomatoes and cherry tomatoes were 70.5–120.0% and 70.8–119.8%, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 7.1%. Field trials of seven fungicides in vegetable and cherry tomatoes showed that the half-lives (t 1/2) of the dithiocarbamate fungicides (metiram, mancozeb, and propineb, defined as total residues determined as CS2), pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole, dimethomorph, and azoxystrobin were in the ranges of 5.2, 12.7–17.8, 7.6–7.9, 6.6–6.9, and 6.3–6.6 d in vegetable tomatoes, respectively. The cherry tomatoes presented ranges of 4.3–4.5, 10.8–11.8, 6.7–7.0, 5.4–5.5, and 5.9–6.2 d, respectively. Combined with the final residue and market monitoring results, the results show that cherry tomatoes have significantly higher terminal residues, initial deposits, and maximum residues of seven fungicides than vegetable tomatoes, and these seven pesticides can be detected in cherry tomatoes purchased from three markets. Therefore, cherry tomatoes may be regarded as representative varieties of tomatoes in realizing residual extrapolation for the establishment of the maximum residue limit (MRL) value of fungicides in tomatoes and for conducting market monitoring.

Open access

A residue analytical method was developed for the determination of trichlorfon, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, β cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and chlorothalonilin in six leafy vegetables by gas chromatography–electron capture detector (GC–ECD) and gas chromatography–flame photometric detector (GC–FPD). The method had a good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9924) and precision (RSD ≤ 14.0%). The limits of quantification (LOQ) of six pesticides were all 0.01 mg/kg. Average recoveries of six pesticides ranged from 81% to 119%. The developed method was successfully applied to study the initial deposits, degrade characteristics, and terminal residues for six pesticides applied to six leafy vegetables under the same dose of formulation. The half-life of six pesticides was in the range of 0.8–8.8 days. The highest initial deposits, maximal residues, and terminal residues were found on leaf mustard and sweet potato leaves as the same pesticides were applied in different crops. Therefore, leaf mustard can be selected as representative commodity in the same subgroup to realize the residual extrapolation. This conclusion should be considered as a complement on crop classification of China.

Open access

Abstract

Toddalia asiatica (Linn) Lam (T. asiatica) as a traditional Miao medicine was investigated to find rational alternative medicinal parts for T. asiatica root bark and its antitumor chemical constituents by quantitative pharmacognostic microscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and multivariate statistical analysis. A bivariate correlation analysis method based on microscopic characteristics and content of chemical constituents was established for the first time, there were some regular discoveries between powder microscopic characteristics and common chromatographic peaks of T. asiatica through quantitative pharmacognostic microscopy, cork cells, calcium oxalate square crystal, brown clump, starch granule and phloem fiber, as powder microscopic characteristics may be placed where the main chemical constitutes were enriched. Scores plot of principal component analysis (PCA) and dendrogram of hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) showed that 18 T. asiatica samples were distinguished correctly, clustered clearly into two main groups as follows: S01∼S03 (root bark) and S07∼S09 (stem bark) in cluster 1, S04∼S06 and S10∼S18 in cluster 2. Nineteen common peaks were obtained in HPLC fingerprint of T. asiatica, loadings plot of PCA indicated seven compounds played important roles in different part of samples (P10 > P08 > P07 > P14 > P16 > P17 > P19), peaks 04, 06, 07, 08, 10 were identified as hesperidin, 4-methoxycinnamic acid, toddalolactone, isopimpinlline and pimpinellin. MTT assay was used to determine the inhibitory activity of different medicinal parts of T. asiatica on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, all parts of T. asiatica had different inhibitory effects on MCF-7 cell lines, root and stem barks of T. asiatica showed the best inhibitory activity. The relationship between chemical constituents and the inhibitions on MCF-7 cell had been established, significant antitumor constituents of T. asiatica were identified by correlation analysis, the order of the antitumor effect of the main compounds was P07 (toddalolactone) > P16 > P06 (4-methoxycinnamic acid), P11 > P18 > P10 (pimpinellin) > P08 (isopimpinellin) > P01 > P19 > P14 > P04 (hesperidin) > P17, which were antitumor chemical constituents of T. asiatica root bark. T. asiatica stem bark was the most rational alternative medicinal part for T. asiatica root bark.

Open access