This study discusses the thermal behavior of the 6.5 Ah cylinder Ni/MH hydride battery with 0.5 wt% ytterbium oxide (Yb2O3) in nickel electrode and 1.0 wt% super absorbent polymer (SAP) in hydrogen-storage alloy (MH) electrode during charging to 150% of its rating capacity. Quantity of heat and heat generation rate of the battery during charging are studied by quartz frequency microcalorimeter. Heat generation curve is fitted into a function, and heat transport equation is solved. Using measured data, the internal temperature profiles at the terminal moment of charging at 1C, 3C, and 5C are simulated by FEM. Influence of Yb2O3 and SAP on the thermal behavior of Ni/MH battery is examined by the two-dimensional thermal model. Results show that addition of Yb2O3 and SAP can achieve substantial improvement for thermal behavior of Ni/MH battery at 1C,3C, and 5C charging.
Authors:Dongyan Liu, Xiaomin Huo, Jing Liu, Lei Shi and Qi Sun
Adding La2O3 or CeO2 to the Ag/SiO2–ZnO catalyst can improve the catalytic performance in the synthesis of indole and CeO2 exhibits more efficiency than La2O3. La2O3 can improve the dispersion of silver on SiO2. CeO2 can improve the reduction of Ag2O. Both La2O3 and CeO2 can suppress the formation of coke.
Authors:Y.G. Shi, Y. Lian, H.W. Shi, S.G. Wang, H. Fan, D.Z. Sun and R.L. Jing
Senescence in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf is a programmed degeneration process leading to death. During this process, green leaf area duration (GLAD) and green leaf number of main stem (GLNMS) are gradually reduced. In this study, the two traits of Hanxuan10/Lumai14 DH population at different development stages after anthesis were evaluated under rainfed and irrigated conditions, and QTLs were detected. GLAD and GLNMS of two parents and DH population under rainfed condition were less than those under irrigated condition, and close correlations (P < 0 05) were found between GLAD and GLNMS after 25 DAA under both water conditions. GLAD and GLNMS were co-controlled by major and minor genes. QTLs for GLAD were stably expressed at different development stages after anthesis under both water conditions, such as QGlad22-1B-1, QGlad25-1B-1, QGlad28-1B-2 detected under irrigated condition and QGlad25-1B-3, QGlad28-1B-4 mapped under rainfed condition were located at a 20.7 cM marker interval of Xgwm273-EST122 on 1B chromosome. But QTLs for GLNMS were inducibly and specifically expressed at specific developmental stages after anthesis under both water conditions. The findings provide dynamic genetic information related to wheat senescence.
Authors:Jun Zhang, Shuangjun Chen, Jun Su, Xuming Shi, Jing Jin, Xiaolin Wang and Zhongzi Xu
Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and subsequent melting behavior for three kinds of ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer
(EAA) are investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). From the Jeziorny method, the crystallization rate of
the primary stage is significantly influenced by the competitive mobility of chains. While the crystallization rate in the
secondary stage decreases in order of acrylic acid (AA) content in copolymers. Mo’s method can also provide a good fitting.
Difference between the Jeziorny method and Mo’s method analysis is because of a higher effect of non-crystallizable chain
ends. The effective activation energy is also determined via Kissinger’s method.
Authors:Jun Zhang, Shuangjun Chen, Jing Jin, Xuming Shi, Xiaolin Wang and Zhongzi Xu
Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the ethylene–acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) in diluents during thermally induced
phase separation (TIPS) process was investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Dioctyl phthalate (DOP), diphenyl
ester (DPE), and peanut oil were used as diluents. Kinetic models, such as Jeziorny theory, Ozawa theory, and Mo’s approach,
were utilized for description. The effective activation energy of EAA component in mixture was calculated by Friedman’s method.
In the results, the Jeziorny theory and Mo’s approach could obtain good linear fitting relationship with the primary crystallization
behavior of EAA, but the Ozawa theory failed to get a suitable result. The homogeneous nucleation of EAA proceeded at the
end of liquid–liquid phase separation, while the non-isothermal crystallization developed within a solid–liquid phase separation
environment. In the mixtures, the molecular weight, polar groups, and conformation of the diluent molecules would affect the
nucleation of EAA, and its growth rate. Comparing with the non-isothermal crystallization of neat EAA, EAA in diluents obtained
a higher Avrami index n, and comparatively lower crystallization rate. Peanut oil facilitated the homogeneous nucleation of EAA, leading to a higher
melting peak temperature of EAA in the subsequent melting endotherms. The largest EAA’s Avrami index obtained in peanut oil
also indicated a higher crystal growth dimensional geometry. The crystallization rate and crystallinity of EAA during the
non-isothermal process decreased in the sequence: EAA/DPE > EAA/DOP > EAA/peanut oil.
Authors:Tang Jing-juan, Ye Ming-lu, Mao Yun, Lu Shi-jun, Tang Zhi-hua and Guo Ze-hong
Silver-impregnated silica gels prepared by us have very good adsorption characteristics for both organic and inorganic radioiodine. Under the operating conditions applied, the adsorption capacity is up to 200 mg I g–1 and the utilization of silver on the sorbent is higher than 90%. The adsorbent can be used to remove iodine from nuclear fuel reprocessing off-gases and from air cleaning systems of nuclear reactors.
Authors:Gui-Hua Gu, Da-Jian Yang, Shi-Yun Wang, Wei Zeng, Wei Wang and Jing-Song Yuan
A high-performance liquid chromatography—diode-array detection method was developed and validated to determine simultaneously eleven major alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. The alkaloids detected were corlumidine, protopine, coptisine, tetrahydrojatrorrhizine, palmatine, berberine, sanguinarine, papaverine hydrochloride, tetrahydropalmatine, bicuculline, and corydaline. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C-18 column with a mobile phase composed of A (0.2% acetic acid solution, adjusted with triethylamine to pH 5.0) and B (acetonitrile), with stepwise gradient elution. Ultraviolet diode-array detection was used; chromatograms were examined at the wavelength of 280 nm. The regression equations showed a good linear relationship between the peak area of each marker and concentration (r = 0.9994–0.9999). The recovery values ranged between 93.66% and 100.54%. The method was fully validated with respect to detection and quantification limits, precision, reproducibility, and accuracy. The described high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was successfully used for the differentiation and quantification of the eleven major alkaloids in C. decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. and can be considered an effective procedure for the analyses of this important class of natural compounds.
Authors:Gu De-shan, Jing Shi-wei, Sang Hai-feng, Qiao Shuang, Liu Yu-ren and Liu Lin-mao
This paper introduces the analysis method and principle of pulse fast-thermal neutron analysis (PFTNA). A system for the measurement
of low caloric power of coal by PFTNA is also presented. The 14 MeV pulse neutron generator and BGO detector and 4096 MCA
were applied in this system. A multiple linear regression method applied to the data solved the interferential problem of
multiple elements. The error of low caloric power between chemical analysis and experiment was less than 0.4 MJ/kg.
Authors:Haiying Wang, Yucheng Yang, Jianhong Wei, Ling Le, Yang Liu, Chunxu Pan, Pengfei Fang, Rui Xiong and Jing Shi
Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays were synthesized by anodization in ethylene glycol electrolyte and annealing in ammonia at 500 °C. Detailed analysis showed that the nitrogen-doped titania nanotubes were pure anatase of ordered structure, with a crystallite size of 8.5 nm. The doping nitrogen atoms were induced on the interstitial sites and substitutional sites and the ratio of oxygen vacancies increased to 27.15 %, resulting in an add-on peak in the absorption spectrum and extended the absorption from 387 to 618 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotubes was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue under visible light irradiation. Significant improvement of photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation was observed. We assumed the nitrogen doping induced the effect produced by nitrogen atoms, Ti3+ cations and oxygen vacancies and the size effect of the TiO2 crystallite should be responsible for the effective photocatalytic activity.
Authors:Antonius J. van Rooij, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michelle Colder Carras, Daniel Kardefelt-Winther, Jing Shi, Espen Aarseth, Anthony M. Bean, Karin Helmersson Bergmark, Anne Brus, Mark Coulson, Jory Deleuze, Pravin Dullur, Elza Dunkels, Johan Edman, Malte Elson, Peter J. Etchells, Anne Fiskaali, Isabela Granic, Jeroen Jansz, Faltin Karlsen, Linda K. Kaye, Bonnie Kirsh, Andreas Lieberoth, Patrick Markey, Kathryn L. Mills, Rune Kristian Lundedal Nielsen, Amy Orben, Arne Poulsen, Nicole Prause, Patrick Prax, Thorsten Quandt, Adriano Schimmenti, Vladan Starcevic, Gabrielle Stutman, Nigel E. Turner, Jan van Looy and Andrew K. Przybylski
We greatly appreciate the care and thought that is evident in the 10 commentaries that discuss our debate paper, the majority of which argued in favor of a formalized ICD-11 gaming disorder. We agree that there are some people whose play of video games is related to life problems. We believe that understanding this population and the nature and severity of the problems they experience should be a focus area for future research. However, moving from research construct to formal disorder requires a much stronger evidence base than we currently have. The burden of evidence and the clinical utility should be extremely high, because there is a genuine risk of abuse of diagnoses. We provide suggestions about the level of evidence that might be required: transparent and preregistered studies, a better demarcation of the subject area that includes a rationale for focusing on gaming particularly versus a more general behavioral addictions concept, the exploration of non-addiction approaches, and the unbiased exploration of clinical approaches that treat potentially underlying issues, such as depressive mood or social anxiety first. We acknowledge there could be benefits to formalizing gaming disorder, many of which were highlighted by colleagues in their commentaries, but we think they do not yet outweigh the wider societal and public health risks involved. Given the gravity of diagnostic classification and its wider societal impact, we urge our colleagues at the WHO to err on the side of caution for now and postpone the formalization.