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Abstract

Dibenzoyl peroxide (BPO) has been widely employed in the petrifaction industry. This study determined the unsafe characteristics of organic peroxide mixed with incompatible materials so as to help prevent runaway reactions, fires or explosions in the process environment. Thermal activity monitor III (TAM III) was applied to assess the kinetic parameters, such as kinetic model, reaction order, heat of reaction (ΔH d), activation energy (E a), and pre-exponential factor (k 0), etc. Meanwhile, TAM III was used to analyze the thermokinetic parameters and safety indices of BPO and contaminated with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Simulations of a 0.5 L Dewar vessel and 25 kg commercial package in green thermal analysis technology were performed and compared to the thermal stability. From these, the optimal conditions were determined to avoid violent reactions in incompatible materials that cause runaway reactions in storage, transportation, and manufacturing.

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Abstract  

Pooling lauroyl peroxide (LPO) with nitric acid, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to assess the thermokinetic parameters, such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat of decomposition (ΔH d), frequency factor (A), and the other safety parameters. When LPO was contaminated with nitric acid (HNO3), we found the exploder 1-nitrododecane. Obvious products were sensitive and hazardous chemicals. Concentration reaching 1–12 N HNO3 emitted a large amount of heat. This study combined with curve-fitting method to elucidate its unsafe characteristics and thermally sensitive structure to help prevent runaway reactions, fires and explosions in the process environment. According to the findings and the concept of inherently safer design, LPO runaway reactions could be adequately prevented in the relevant plants.

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Abstract  

Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a typical highly energetic material that has been widely used in national defense industries since the 1940s. The aim of this study was to establish a reaction kinetic model on thermal decomposition properties via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) by well-known kinetic equations and kinetic model simulation. Furthermore, the aim also was to compare kinetic algorithms for thermal decomposition energy parameters under various conditions. Experimental results highly depended on the reliability of the kinetic concept applied, which is essentially defined by the proper choice of a mathematical model of a reaction. In addition, the correctness of the methods is used for kinetics evaluation.

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Abstract  

The effect of initial temperatures (100, 150, and 200 °C), operating pressures (101 and 202 kPa), and various loading oxygen concentrations (21, 17, 14…oxygen vol.%) on the flammability hazard evaluations for the mixtures of benzene and methanol (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 0/100 vol.%) by using rough set method, was studied. The results indicated that the most important influence factor was the operating pressure. There is no significant difference in the safety assessment for the different concentrations of mixtures. This study proposed a helpful reference for a related practical plant combined with experimentally and theoretically feasible way for flammability prevention and protection.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Chun-Ping Lin, Jo-Ming Tseng, Yi-Ming Chang, Shang-Hao Liu, Yen-Chun Cheng, and Chi-Min Shu

Abstract  

This study investigated the role played by green thermal analysis technology in promoting the use of resources, preventing pollution, reducing energy consumption and protecting the environment. The chemical tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (TBPB) has been widely employed in the petrifaction industries as an initiator of polymerization formation agent. This study established the thermokinetic parameters and thermal explosion hazard for a reactor containing TBPB via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). To simulate thermokinetic parameters, a 5-ton barrel reactor of liquid thermal explosion model was created in this study. The approach was to develop a precise and effective procedure on thermal decomposition, runaway, and thermal hazard properties, such as activation energy (E a), control temperature (CT), critical temperature (TCR), emergency temperature (ET), heat of decomposition (∆H d), self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT), time to conversion limit (TCL), total energy release (TER), time to maximum rate under isothermal condition (TMR iso), etc. for a reactor containing TBPB. Experimental results established the features of thermal decomposition and huge size explosion hazard of TBPB that could be executed as a reduction of energy potential and storage conditions in view of loss prevention.

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Abstract

Liquid organic peroxides (LOPs) have been widely used as initiators of polymerization, hardening, or cross-linking agents. We evaluated a beneficial kinetic model to acquire accurate thermokinetic parameters to help preventing runaway reactions, fires or explosions in the process environment. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to assess the kinetic parameters, such as kinetic model, reaction order, heat of reaction (ΔH d), activation energy (E a), frequency factor (lnk 0), etc. The non-isothermal and isothermal kinetic models were compared to determine the validity of the kinetic model, and then applied to the thermal hazard assessment of commercial package contaminated with LOPs. Simulations of a 0.5-L Dewar vessel and 25-kg commercial package were performed. We focused on the thermal stability of different liquid system properties for LOPs. From the results, the optimal conditions were determined for avoiding violent heat effects that can cause a runaway reaction in storage, transportation, and manufacturing.

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Fire and explosion hazard evaluation for the acetone aqueous solutions

Using weighting analysis of influence factors by grey system theory and 20-L-apparatus flammability investigations

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Yi-Ming Chang, Mei-Li You, Chien-Hung Lin, Siou-Yuan Wu, Jo-Ming Tseng, Chun-Ping Lin, Yaw-Long Wang, and Chi-Min Shu

Abstract

The prevention of fire and explosion is recognized as an imperative necessity that is a first priority in all operating management details of the chemical process industries. Based on significant research and original emphasis on loss control and disaster prevention, this study investigated the flammability characteristics, comprising the lower/upper explosion limit (LEL and UEL), maximum explosion overpressure (P max), maximum rate of explosion pressure rise [(dP dt −1)max], gas or vapor deflagration index (K g), and explosion class (St class) of four acetone aqueous solutions [water vapor (steam)/acetone: 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 0/100 vol.%], and discussed the effect of inert steam (H2O(g)) on them. Interactive influences of various loading fuel concentrations and initial testing conditions of 150, 200 °C, and 101, 202 kPa on flammability characteristics were revealed via a 20-L-apparatus. Weighting analysis of the above influence factors was explored by employing the GM(h,N) grey system theory for rating their fire and explosion hazard degrees both specifically and quantitatively. The results indicated that the most important influence factor was the initial pressure that the manager or engineer in such a steam/acetone mixing system should consider to be well-controlled first. The second influence factor in GM(1,N) and GM(0,N) model was the initial temperature and steam/acetone mixing concentration, but the third influence factor was individual contrariwise. This study established a complete flammability hazard evaluation approach that is combined with an experimentally and theoretically feasible way for fire/explosion prevention and protection. The outcomes would be useful for positive decisions for safety assessment for the relevant practical plants or processes.

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