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Manchu words like giranggi ‘bone’ or senggi ‘blood’ are traditionally classified as part of a nominal class system inherited from the Proto-Tungusic parent language. This nominal class system has obscure origins and it is unproductive in the historical languages (Manchu included). Manchu giranggi and senggi contain the class suffix +nggi which in historical terms cannot be easily reconciled with the so-called “collective” suffixes +ksa and +kta in Core Tungusic languages. In this contribution we argue that the class suffix +nggi is the result of the reanalysis *…V/n+g.i ⇒ …V+nggi whereby nasal nouns are reinterpreted as vowel nouns. Common Tungusic “collectives” *+kta and *+ksa are secondary formations that were created after Manchu had branched off. The general assumption is made that Manchuric (a.k.a. Jurchenic) serves best to improve our understanding of the prehistory of the Tungusic languages when it is seen as the conservative member of the family instead of the innovative one as usual.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Sándor Hornok
,
Getachew Abichu
,
Nóra Takács
,
Miklós Gyuranecz
,
Róbert Farkas
,
Isabel G. Fernández De Mera
, and
José De La Fuente

Hard ticks and tsetse flies are regarded as the most important vectors of disease agents in Sub-Saharan Africa. With the aim of screening these blood-sucking arthropods for vector-borne pathogens belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae in South-Western Ethiopia, four species of tsetse flies (collected by traps) and seven species of ixodid ticks (removed from cattle) were molecularly analysed. DNA was extracted from 296 individual ticks and from 162 individuals or pools of tsetse flies. Besides known vector–pathogen associations, in Amblyomma cohaerens ticks sequences of Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum were detected, the latter for the first time in any ticks from cattle in Africa. In addition, part of the gltA gene of Ehrlichia ruminantium was successfully amplified from tsetse flies (Glossina pallidipes). First-time identification of sequences of the above pathogens in certain tick or tsetse fly species may serve as the basis of further epidemiological and transmission studies.

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