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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Orsolya Orbán-Gyapai, Peter Forgo, Judit Hohmann and Andrea Vasas

In the course of our pharmacological screening of Polygonaceae species occurring in the Carpathian Basin the extracts prepared from the roots of Rumex thyrsiflorus showed promising antiproliferative, xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antibacterial activities. The present work deals with the isolation of compounds from the root of the plant. After multistep separation process, four compounds were obtained from the n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the methanol extract of the root. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined as 1-palmitoylglycerol, β-sitosterol, (–)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B5.

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l-Theanine is a non-protein amino acid that occurs in the leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) and possesses several pharmacologic effects, and therefore it is widely applied in the food industry. Considering the chemical characteristics of the molecule (high polarity, lack of chromophore group), conventional HPLC-based methods are not optimal for the quantification of the compound. However, for TLC chromatographic separation of theanine in tea extracts, there are reliable methods available and TLC analysis allows derivatization for better detection of the compound. Here we report for the first time the development and validation of an eligible densitometric method based on the analysis of digital photographs of TLC plates without the need of densitometer and using a software available free of charge for the quick and reliable determination of theanine in tea extracts.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Eszter Laczkó-Zöld, Péter Forgó, István Zupkó, Eşianu Sigrid and Judit Hohmann

Physalin D was isolated from the methanol extract of Physalis alkekengi L. fruits by combination of different chromatographic methods (CPC, TLC, HPLC). The structure was elucidated based on 1H and 13C NMR spectral analysis with the aid of 2D-correlation spectroscopy (1H, 1H-COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with literature data. The quantity of physalin D in mature and immature fruits and calyces was determined by RP-HPLC-UV method. Among the studied samples, immature calyx showed the highest content of physalin D (0.7880 ± 0.0612%), while mature calyx contained 4 times less amount (0.2028 ± 0.016%). The physalin D content of the fruit was much lower; immature fruits contained 0.0992 ± 0.0083% physalin D and mature fruits 0.0259 ± 0.0021%. The antiproliferative activity of the CHCl3 extract and its fractions was tested on three cancer cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7 and A431). The antiproliferative activity of physalin D is discussed with regard the published data.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Dezső Csupor, András Szekeres, Anita Kecskeméti, Erika Vékes, Katalin Veres, Ákos Micsinay, Kálmán Szendrei and Judit Hohmann

Az étrend-kiegészítők gyártását és forgalmazását nem garantálják a gyógyszerszabályozáshoz hasonlóan szigorú jogszabályok. Az elmúlt években a termékcsoport tagjainak száma meredeken emelkedett, és ezzel párhuzamosan szaporodtak a készítmények reklámozásával, ajánlásával és minőségével kapcsolatos visszaélések. A termékek hamisításának egyik gyakori módja a szintetikus gyógyszerhatóanyagok jelölés nélküli felhasználása növényi eredetű készítményekben. Vizsgálatunkban 10, hazánkban forgalomban lévő, potenciafokozóként (vagy ezt a hatást sugallva) reklámozott étrend-kiegészítőt vontunk kémiai elemzés alá. Hat termékben szildenafil és/vagy tadalafil vagy a vegyületek analógjai voltak kimutathatóak. Eredményeink felhívják a figyelmet arra, hogy a rossz minőségű, hamisított étrend-kiegészítők valós egészségi kockázatot jelentenek a fogyasztók számára. Orv. Hetil., 2010, 43, 1783–1789.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Ionut F. Palici, Erika Liktor-Busa, István Zupkó, Blaise Touzard, Mohamed Chaieb, Edit Urbán and Judit Hohmann

The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of selected Saharan species, which are applied in the traditional medicine but not studied thoroughly from chemical and pharmacological point of view. The studied plants, namely Anthyllis henoniana, Centropodia forskalii, Cornulaca monacantha, Ephedra alata var. alenda, Euphorbia guyoniana, Helianthemum confertum, Henophyton deserti, Moltkiopsis ciliata and Spartidium saharae were collected from remote areas of North Africa, especially from the Tunisian region of Sahara. After drying and applying the appropriate extraction methods, the plant extracts were tested in antimicrobial screening assay, performed on 19 Gram-positive and -negative strains of microbes. The inhibition zones produced by plant extracts were determined by disc-diffusion method. Remarkable antibacterial activities were exhibited by extracts of Ephedra alata var. alenda and Helianthemum confertum against B. subtilis, M. catarrhalis and methicillin-resistant and non-resistant S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of these two species were also determined. Antiproliferative effects of the extracts were evaluated against 4 human adherent cell lines (HeLa, A431, A2780 and MCF7). Notable cell growth inhibition was found for extract of Helianthemum confertum and Euphorbia guyoniana. Our results provided data for selection of some plant species for further detailed pharmacological and phytochemical examinations.

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The present work is the first phytochemical investigation of Euphorbia davidii Subils. After multistep separation process, three flavonoid glycosides were obtained from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the whole plant. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined as kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside, myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside, and quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside. Aqueous and organic extracts of the plant were screened in vitro for antiproliferative activity against HeLa (cervix epithelial adenocarcinoma), A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma) and MCF7 (breast epithelial adenocarcinoma) cells, using the MTT assay. n-Hexane and chloroform extracts demonstrated moderately dose-dependent cell growth inhibitory activity against all four cell lines.

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Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seeds are increasingly applied for medicinal purposes, especially due to their antimicrobial and immunostimulant features, to treat or prevent common cold. However, the scientific background of these uses has not been established. To date, only in vitro studies support the antimicrobial effect of the seeds, and there are no data on the systemic antibiotic or other clinical effects. Moreover, recent data refer to the adulteration of grapefruit seed products with synthetic antiseptics which may be an explanation for the antimicrobial efficacy of some formulations. The aim of our study was to develop a simple thin-layer chromatography- based method for the quality control of grapefruit seed extracts. Besides the analytical procedure, we report a quick and simple method for the isolation of limonoids from grapefruit seeds. Limonoids are characteristic compounds of the seeds; hence, the detection of these marker compounds may be the basis of grapefruit identification. Further, a thin-layer chromatographic screening for synthetic antiseptics (quaternary ammonium salts) is also part of the quality control procedure.

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