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  • Author or Editor: Judit Szabó-Fodor x
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Authors: András Szabó, Judit Szabó-Fodor, Hedvig Fébel, Miklós Mézes, Imre Repa and Melinda Kovács

Adult male Wistar rats were enrolled in a study to test the acute hepatic effects of 50 mg/kg fumonisin B1 in feed for 5 days. Fumonisin B1 depressed growth and feed intake, and absolute and relative liver weight showed a significant increase. The proportions of C17:0, C18:3 n3, C22:5 n3 and C22:6 n3 fatty acids decreased in the hepatic phospholipid fraction. All proportional decreases modified the hepatocellular membrane lipids into a more rigid state. The fatty acid profile modifications were partly compensated for by endogenous glutathione (preventing the formation of conjugated dienes and trienes as initial phase lipid peroxidation indicators), while the enzymatic antioxidant defence system (glutathione peroxidase) was unaltered. In contrast, hepatic malondialdehyde, the cytotoxic product of end-phase lipid peroxidation showed a concentration increase even after 5 days of feeding. The results indicate a rather strong and rapid hepatic effect of FB1, immediately impairing membrane phospholipids, even before the enzymatic antioxidant defence is activated.

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Authors: Csilla Pelyhe, Benjámin Kövesi, Erika Zándoki, Balázs Kovács, Judit Szabó-Fodor, Miklós Mézes and Krisztián Balogh

The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of a single oral dose of T-2 and HT-2 toxin at 0.15, 0.33 and 1.82 mg kg−1 body weight, or deoxynivalenol (DON) and 15-acetyl-DON at 0.13, 0.31 and 1.75 mg kg−1 body weight in common carp. Conjugated dienes and trienes (the early markers of lipid peroxidation) were elevated in all DON-treated groups at the 16th hour, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; termination marker) were increased at the highest dose of DON at the 16th and 24th hours. T-2 toxin did not cause changes in these parameters. Glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity showed higher levels at the 16th hour as the effect of both mycotoxins. The expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes (gpx4a and gpx4b) revealed a dual response. Downregulation was observed at the 8th hour, followed by an induction at the 16th hour, at the lowest dose of both mycotoxins. Higher doses revealed long-drawn emergence and an elevation was observed only at the 24th hour. However, at the lowest and highest doses of DON or T-2 toxin the changes in gene expression were delayed, which may be related to the low oxidative stress response, as suggested by the expression profiles of the nrf2, keap1, gpx4a and gpx4b genes.

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Authors: Mariam Kachlek, Judit Szabó-Fodor, Zsófia Blochné Bodnár, Katalin Horvatovich and Melinda Kovács

Fusarium mycotoxins, such as fumonisin B1 (FB1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), frequently co-occur in feed raw materials and their presence is ubiquitous. The aims of this study were to determine the concentration that inhibits cell viability by 50% (IC50 values) for each mycotoxin (after 24, 48 and 72 h) and to investigate their combined effects in binary (DON + ZEN: DZ, DON + FB1: DF, FB1 + ZEN: FZ) and ternary (DFZ) mixtures using cyto- and genotoxicity on porcine lymphocytes as endpoints. The potency of cytotoxicity of the three toxins in an increasing order was FB1 < ZEN < DON. The range of IC values depending on the period of exposure was 0.31–0.42 μg/ml and 16.6– 22.9 μg/ml for DON and ZEN, respectively, and 101.15 μg/ml for FB1 (50% viability was reached only after 72 h). The main interaction observed was antagonism regarding cytotoxicity. Lower and higher sets of concentrations were used for the genotoxicity (comet assay) experiments. When lower concentrations were used, antagonism was again the main interaction observed. However, at higher concentrations an antagonism was confirmed only for DFZ, whereas for DZ and FZ a synergism was observed. Interactions of DF were inconsistent in different exposure periods in both series of experiments. Further studies with additional endpoints should be performed (e.g. DNA fragmentation, protein synthesis) in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the interactions observed.

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Authors: Dániel J. Kócsó, Judit Szabó-Fodor, Miklós Mézes, Krisztián Balogh, Szilamér Ferenczi, András Szabó, Brigitta Bóta and Melinda Kovács

The objective of this experiment was to determine whether fumonisin B1 (FB1) added to the diet of rats in a dose of 50 mg/kg changes the production of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the lungs and kidney of rats. We also studied the effect of this mycotoxin on the antioxidant system of the body. Mature (8 weeks old) male Wistar Crl:WI BR rats (n = 6/group) were fed the toxin-containing diet for 5 days. FB1 resulted in a 7% body weight reduction without significantly changing the feed intake. Western blot analysis of the lungs and kidney demonstrated a substantial (1.4-fold and 1.8-fold, respectively) increase in Hsp70 expression. Alterations could not be detected in the clinical chemical parameters (total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, glucose, creatinine and urea concentrations, and aspartate aminotransferase activity). There was no statistically significant change in malondialdehyde concentrations and the measured antioxidant parameters (the amount of reduced glutathione, GSH and glutathione peroxidase activity, GPx) in the blood plasma, lung and kidney tissue. Thus, it can be concluded that FB1 did not induce oxidative stress in the lungs and kidney, but increased Hsp70 production.

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Authors: Mangesh Nakade, Csilla Pelyhe, Benjámin Kövesi, Krisztián Balogh, Balázs Kovács, Judit Szabó-Fodor, Erika Zándoki, Miklós Mézes and Márta Erdélyi

Short-term (48-hour) effects of 3.74/1.26 mg kg−1 T-2/HT-2 toxin or 16.12 mg kg−1 DON in feed were investigated in the liver of three-week-old cockerels (body weight: 749.60 ± 90.98 g). Markers of lipid peroxidation showed no significant changes. At hour 24, glutathione content in the T-2/HT-2 toxin group was significantly higher than in the control. Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher than the control at hour 24 in the T-2/H-2 toxin group and at hour 48 in the DON group. In the DON group, expression of the glutathione peroxidase 4 gene (GPX4) was significantly lower than in the control at hours 12 and 14, and higher at hour 48. Expression of the glutathione reductase gene (GSR) was significantly lower than in the control at hour 12 in the T-2/HT-2 toxin group, and at hours 12, 24 and 48 in the DON group. However, at hour 36 higher GSR expression was measured in the DON group. Due to the effect of both trichothecenes, expression of the glutathione synthetase gene (GSS) was significantly lower than in the control at hours 24 and 48. In conclusion, T-2/HT-2 toxin and DON had a moderate short-term effect on free radical formation. T-2/HT-2 toxin induced more pronounced activation of the glutathione redox system than did DON.

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Authors: Judit Szabó-Fodor, László Kametler, Roland Pósa, Rene Mamet, Veronika Rajli, Johann Bauer, Péter Horn, Ferenc Kovács and Melinda Kovács

The absorption, distribution and elimination of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) and its metabolites was investigated in pigs. For the determination of the absorption and biotransformation of FB 1 , T-cannula were implanted into the distal part of experimental pigs’ ileum and the total urine and faeces moiety was collected during the toxin feeding (45 mg FB 1 /kg diet, duration: 10 days) and in the subsequent elimination period (10 days). At the end of trial several organs, muscle and fat samples were also collected. The accumulative absorption of fumonisin B 1 was 4%. In the chymus, the FB 1 conversion to aminopentol (totally hydrolysed FB 1 ; AP 1 ) and partially hydrolysed FB 1 (PHFB 1 ) was 1% and 3.9%, respectively. Derivatives of FB 1 were mostly accumulated in the liver and kidney, while in negligible concentration could be detected in the muscle and fat samples. In the organs the efficacy of the FB 1 to AP 1 and PHFB 1 conversion was 30% and 20%, respectively. In the faecal content the main hydrolised product was PHFB 1 (47%), with 12% of AP 1 . 1.5% of the FB 1 quantity taken up was excreted with the urine, about 35% in hydrolyzed form. Detectable amounts of FB 1 and its metabolites were measured in most of the organs, in faeces and urine even 10 days after the feeding of the noncontaminated diet. As a general conclusion, the intestinal microbiota of pigs is able to transform the intact FB 1 to a similarly toxic substance (partially hydrolyzed FB 1 ) or to a more toxic metabolite (aminopentol).

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