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In public education the main emphasis is on conveying lexical knowledge instead of making students love music, play music together and do creative musical exercises. Teaching music has become too theoretical, and it is almost entirely dominated by literary data. Although teachers have some freedom to make slight changes in the curriculum, the number of music lessons is very low. Concert pedagogy is a progressive pedagogical initiative of the 20th–21st century, which aims to present the values of art at the original location of artistic activity, in an experience-filled environment, just as other branches of experience pedagogy do. The educational activity of experience pedagogy takes place in an extracurricular framework to complement public education. Art education is based on going through and enjoying an experience, which, however, cannot be taught, only explored and reinforced. In the traditional approach, intellectual education comprises two tasks: intellectual informing and formation (). Intellectual development occurs through the process of transferring and internalising scientific knowledge, which is presented in the form of subjects. Bábosik highlights that intellectual and cultural needs can evolve when it is achieved that children like to learn, which generates the desire for novel knowledge.

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A tanulók éneklési attitűdjére ható tényezők vizsgálata

The Analysis of the Factors on Students’ Singing Attitude

Authors: Judit Váradi and Zoltán Óváry

Összefoglaló. A tanulmány egy empirikus kutatás eredményét mutatja be, melynek célja négy közép-európai ország 19 iskolájában folyó zenei nevelési gyakorlat elemzése és a tanulók (N = 805) zenei kultúrájának kialakulására ható tényezők vizsgálata. A szakirodalmi előzmények ismeretében a felmérés feltérképezi az egyes országok oktatási sajátosságai közötti hasonlóságot és különbséget. Kiemelten vizsgálja a 8–15 éves tanulók énekléshez fűződő attitűdjét és az azt befolyásoló tényezőket, rávilágít a szülők kulturális tőkéjének hatására. Eredményeink szerint a különböző országok eltérő tananyaga és módszertani útmutatója ellenére a tevékenységközpontú, élményalapú oktatás iránymutató pedagógiai módszer a művészeti nevelés területén.

Summary. The study presents the results of an empirical research, the aim is analysing the music education in 19 schools of four Central European countries and examining the factors influencing the development of students’ musical culture (N = 805). Based on the background of the literature, the survey maps the similarities and differences between the educational peculiarities of each country. It examines the 8–15 years old pupils’ attitudes towards singing and the underlying factors, as well as the impact of parents’ cultural capital. According to our results, despite the different curricula and methodological guidelines of different countries, activity-based, experience-based education is a guiding pedagogical method in the field of arts education.

Open access

Recent changes in higher education have not left the structure of art education. Now, in accordance with the Bologna Process in Hungary and Slovakia also, music and other arts are taught on two levels, in bachelor’s and master’s programs. The art schools offer degrees in music field in interpretation, composition, and musicology at all levels: Bachelor, Master, and Doctor. In Hungary, to become an art teacher, students must participate in undivided teacher education that offers a master’s degree. The schools creatively respond to European trends and they try to create optimal conditions for education in music art. That is why the student and his artistic, social, and other needs are at the center of the interest. The paper describes the studies, the determinants of their successful completion, and the career choices of music art graduates. In our qualitative analysis, we investigate educational problems of the field, possible reasons behind dropping out, the difficulties of obtaining a degree, and the special retentiveness of music education based on interviews with faculty and institution directors. Our research is intended to contribute to the decline of attrition, because understanding the reasons behind the phenomenon may help institutions assist students in the completion of their studies and graduation.

Open access

Since early fertility decline is a permanent problem of broiler breeders, the aim of this study was to test the effects of various sex ratios, spiking strategies and additional artificial inseminations (AI) on their breeding efficiency. Six breeder flocks were analysed during the whole reproduction cycle. In Flock A the sex ratio was maintained at 10% during the whole cycle (control), while in Flock B the number of males was increased to a final ratio of 16%. In Flocks C (technological control), D, E and F the ratio of males was gradually decreased from 10% to 6.5% until the end of the cycle. Moreover, at the age of 44 weeks in Flocks D and E 50 and 100% of cockerels were replaced by young ones, respectively, while in Flock F additional artificial inseminations were applied in the second half of the reproduction cycle. The increase of sperm transport was successful only in Groups B (increase in male numbers) and D (50% replacement of old cockerels with young ones); however, it was not sufficient for increasing the fertility rates in either group. Nor did additional artificial inseminations (Flock F) have an effect on fertility. As a conclusion, it can be established that increasing the sperm count in the hens’ oviducts in any way could not improve fertility in the last third of the production cycle. The results also suggest that the expensive and labour-intensive spiking technique used in broiler breeder management is useless. The prime factor responsible for the shortened persistence of fertility may be the reduced ability of the female oviduct to accept and store sperm.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Eszter Patakiné Várkonyi, Gabriella Horváth, Nikoletta Sztán, Éva VÁradi, and Judit Barna

Although cryopreservation of avian semen is only applicable for singlegene traits, cryopreservation of avian blastodermal cells could facilitate preservation of the entire genome of endangered or rare-breed poultry. Slow freezing methods result in acceptable survival rates; however, there are apparently no reports regarding the use of vitrification. The aim of the study was to establish methods for chicken embryonic cell vitrification, including development of a container which supported cryopreservation of large numbers of cells (to increase the probability of chimera production). Based on a preliminary study, vitrification seemed to be practical for avian blastodermal cell preservation. Pieces of mosquito net as carrier increased live cell rates compared to pellet form in media containing two macromolecules. Furthermore, we concluded that fetal calf serum in the vitrification medium could be replaced by polyvinylpyrrolidone, a chemically defined substance free of unwanted growth factors and potential pathogens.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Éva Váradi, Árpád Drobnyák, Barbara Végi, Krisztina Liptói, Csaba Kiss, and Judit Barna

The aim of the study was to find a practical and inexpensive method for freezing goose semen for use in routine inseminations under farm conditions. Two basic freezing protocols [(1) dynamic, programmable freezing and (2) static, nitrogen vapour method] were evaluated with varying concentrations of dimethylformamide (DMF) plus additional osmoprotectants such as betaine, trehalose, and sucrose, using cryovials as containers. Altogether eight different treatments were compared. sperm viability before freezing and after thawing was examined by in vitro tests and, in the case of the simplest effective method, also by in vivo fertility test. There were no significant differences in sperm survival either in the dynamic (48–50%) or in the static protocol (43–46%), except for the treatment where the lowest DMF concentration was used without any osmoprotectant in the dynamic protocol (42.6%). The addition of osmoprotectants did not improve thawed sperm viability in any case. Fertility with frozen/thawed sperm using the simplest method was 58.5%, while that obtained with fresh, diluted semen was 66.9%. The study proved that the simple freezing of gander semen in nitrogen vapour with 9% DMF in cryovials could produce acceptable fertility. The newly elaborated method can be successfully used for routine inseminations by small- and large-scale goose breeders.

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