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Abstract

Non-isothermal crystallization of isotactic poly(4-methyl-pentene-1) (P4MP1) is studied by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and kinetic parameters such as the Avrami exponent and the kinetic crystallization rate (Z c) are determined. From the cooling and melting curves of P4MP1 at different cooling rates, the crystalline enthalpy increases with the increasing cooling rate, but the degree of crystalline by DSC measurement shows not much variation. Degree of crystalline of P4MP1 calculated by wide angle X-ray diffraction pattern shows the same tendency with crystalline enthalpy, indicating that re-crystallization occurs when samples heated above the second glass transition temperature of P4MP1. By Jeziorny analysis, n 1 value suggests that mainly spherulites’ growth at 2.5 K min−1 transforms into a mixture mode of three-dimensional and two-dimensional space extensions with further increasing cooling rate. In the secondary crystallization process, n 2 values indicate that the secondary crystallization is mainly the two-dimensional extension of the lamellar crystals formed during the primary crystallization process. The rates of the crystallization, Z c and t 1/2 both increase obviously with the increase of cooling rate, especially at the primary crystallization stage. By Mo's method, higher cooling rate should be required in order to obtain a higher degree of crystallinity at unit crystallization time.

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Abstract

Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MAPP) is prepared using hydroxyl silicone oil by in situ polymerization and characterized by XPS. Microencapsulation gives MAPP better water resistance and flame retardance compared with APP in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). Thermal stability and fire resistance behavior have been analyzed and compared. The LOI value of the TPU/MAPP composite is higher than that of the TPU/APP composite. The UL 94 rating of the TPU/MAPP composite is V-0 at the 20 wt% additive level, whereas TPU/APP gives V-2 rating at the same loading level. The water resistant properties of the TPU composites are studied. Results of the cone calorimeter and microscale combustion calorimeter experiment show that MAPP is an effective flame retardant in TPU compared with APP.

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This paper draws attention to a robust grammatical change trajectory, here dubbed the copula-to-cleft pathway. We show that the emergence of the copular clause construction tends to lead to the emergence of the cleft construction, and the decline of one tends to be in tandem with the other. We further propose that the above pattern follows from a syntactic treatment that derives the cleft structure from a copular clause. Such copular syntax can be further combined with a semantic analysis where the focus interpretation of clefts is computed based on a copular structure.

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Abstract  

A study of the synergistic extraction of uranium(VI) from sulphuric acid solution with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-pyrazolone-5 (PMCBP) together with di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and also mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-2-ethylhexyl-phosphate (HEHEHP) is described. The results suggest that the compositions of the extracted species is UO2XHA2 and UO2X2H2A2 respectively. Models for the extraction mechanism is also discussed.

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Abstract  

Environmental characters have been established by tritium contents in well water, coastal seawater and reservoir water collected from various places around Taiwan island. Tritium concentrations of samples were detected by a liquid scintillation analyzer TRI-CARB-LSC 2550 TR mode, with a low level standard quench curve. After samples were concentrated by electrolysis, tritium concentration was detected in optimum conditions of LLLSA. An electrolytic enrichment technique was also developed with a eurrent density of 100 mA/cm2 and 0.4–0.6% (Na2O2) electrolyte in concentrated samples. Data observed show a lower tritium concentration for coastal seawater than for wells in the same area. The tritium concentration ratio of well and coastal seawater on the western side of Taiwan is 4.000 and on the eastern side 5.801. Tritium content of reservoir water is related to the logarithm of effective volume capacity.

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Abstract  

The thermal stability of sheepskin collagen cross-linked with chrome sulfate and mimosa (MI)–oxazolidine (OZ), respectively, had been researched in this experiment. All samples’ shrinkage temperatures (T s) are determined by a special T s-testing-apparatus and denaturation temperatures (T d) are determined by the differential scanning calorimetry. The relations between the modified collagens containing moisture and their hydrothermal stability, T s or T d, were studied. The results show that the cross linking agents can enhance the thermal stability of modified collagen whose T s are 109.8 and 110.6 °C for collagen treated with chrome and MI–OZ, respectively. When the samples contain 25–71.9% moisture for chrome leather and 20–71.1% for leather treated with MI–OZ, the hydrothermal stability will decrease with the increase of moisture. It was found that the difference between T s and T d of collagen modified by chrome is more obvious than that of collagen modified with MI–OZ. And when the moisture of chrome leather exceeds 55%, T d cannot express thermal stability of modified collagen as a substitute for T s, and the moisture is 40% for leather tanned with MI–OZ.

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Abstract

Excess molar enthalpies for two ternary mixtures of {x 1 tributylphosphate (TBP) + x 2 water + x 3 methanol/ethanol} were measured at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure using a TAM Air isothermal calorimeter, by mixing methanol or ethanol with binary mixtures of (water + TBP). Excess enthalpies for initial binary mixtures of (water + TBP) were also measured under the same conditions, which showed phase separation at low molar fraction of TBP. Experimental results of the ternary mixtures were expressed with constant excess molar enthalpy contours on Roozeboon diagrams.

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Abstract  

MX-80 bentonite is considered as one of the best backfill materials for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Herein, the bentonite is characterized by using XRD and FTIR techniques. Sorption of radionickel to MX-80 bentonite in the presence/absence of humic acid (HA) or fulvic acid (FA) as a function of pH is investigated. The results indicate that the presence of HA or FA decreases the sorption of Ni2+ obviously. The different experimental processes do not affect the sorption of nickel to FA/HA bound bentonite. The sorption of Ni2+ on FA/HA-bound bentonite decreases with the increasing FA/HA content in the systems. The mechanism of nickel sorption is also discussed in detail.

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Abstract

The catalytic hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol to produce p-aminophenol (PAP) was carried out over the catalyst nickel supported on active carbon (AC). The calcination temperature was one of the most important technical conditions: temperature higher than 450 °C would result in the reduction of NiO to Ni phase by AC and the loss of support. The surface area and nickel dispersion over catalyst decreased obviously after 450 °C calcination temperature because of the loss of support and the Ni phase sintering. Addition of K2O enhanced the alkalinity of the Ni/AC catalyst, and the p-nitrophenol stuff performed rather stronger acidity. Therefore, the level of p-nitrophenol adsorption over Ni/AC catalyst was improved, and the reaction efficiency was enhanced consequently. The p-nitrophenol conversion and PAP selectivity reached 97.7 and 99.3% over Ni–K2O/AC catalyst, respectively. During the process of catalytic hydrogenation, higher PAP selectivity was kept successively. It indicated that no side reactions happened during the catalytic hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol.

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Abstract  

Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and subsequent melting behavior for three kinds of ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) are investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). From the Jeziorny method, the crystallization rate of the primary stage is significantly influenced by the competitive mobility of chains. While the crystallization rate in the secondary stage decreases in order of acrylic acid (AA) content in copolymers. Mo’s method can also provide a good fitting. Difference between the Jeziorny method and Mo’s method analysis is because of a higher effect of non-crystallizable chain ends. The effective activation energy is also determined via Kissinger’s method.

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